This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Psoas abscess secondary to retroperitoneal distant metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with thrombosis of the inferior vena cava and duodenal infiltration treated by Whipple procedure: A case report and review of the literature
© The Author(s). 2016
Received: 5 January 2016
Accepted: 31 July 2016
Published: 11 August 2016
Psoas abscess is a rare clinical disease of various origins. Most common causes include hematogenous spread of bacteria from a different primary source, spondylodiscitis or perforated intestinal organs. But rarely some abscesses are related to malignant metastatic disease.
In this case report we present the case of a patient with known squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix treated with radio-chemotherapy three years prior. She now presented with a psoas abscess and subsequent complete inferior vena cava thrombosis, as well as duodenal and vertebral infiltration. The abscess was drained over a prolonged period of time and later was found to be a complication caused by metastases of the cervical carcinoma. Due to the massive extent of the metastases a Whipple procedure was performed to successfully control the local progress of the metastasis.
As psoas abscess is an unspecific disease which presents with non-specific symptoms adequate therapy may be delayed due to lack of early diagnostic results. This case report highlights the difficulties of managing a malignant abscess and demonstrates some diagnostic pitfalls that might be encountered. It stresses the necessity of adequate diagnostics to initiate successful therapy. Reports on psoas abscesses that are related to cervix carcinoma are scarce, probably due to the rarity of this event, and are limited to very few case reports. We are the first to report a case in which an extensive and complex abdominal procedure was needed for local control to improve quality of life.
Psoas Abscess is a rare disease with a multitude of etiologies. It can be divided into primary and secondary abscesses each with different etiology and predominant age prevalences. Primary abscesses are mainly due to a hematogenous spreading of bacteria. In western countries primary psoas abscess mostly occurs in immunocompromised patients such as diabetics, alcoholics and HIV positive patients 1,2. The most frequent microbial cause of psoas abscess is Staphylococcus aureus . Secondary psoas abscess originates from perforated intestinal organs such as perforation in diverticulitis , perforated appendicitis  or perforation secondary to colon cancer [2, 4]. Other causes include direct spread of inflammation seen in pyelonephritis or spondylodiscitis  with the latter being the most frequent cause of abscedation. Consequently bacteria from the intestinal gram-negative flora such as escherichia coli, enterobacter, clostridia and bacteroides can be found . In the case of spinal infection, staphylococcus aureus and mycobacterium tuberculosis are the pathogens mostly found in the abscess .
Patients mostly present with non-specific symptoms such as back or hip pain, fever, general malaise or weight loss . Difficulty of making the correct diagnosis can be attributed to its non-specific presentation as well as its rarity. As a result appropriate diagnostics are often delayed leading to inadequate treatment . Treatment of the primary cause remains the only curative treatment.
Summary of literature showing cases of psoas abscess in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of cervix
FIGO Stage of SCC
Symptoms at presentation at hospital
Diagnostic tools in order of application
Initial Treatment of cervical cancer
Treatment for metastases/abscess
Microbiology of psoas abscess
Complication of metastases
Singh et al. 
Vaginal discharge, abdominal pain
Tuboovarian abscess, pelvic inflammatory disease and AIDS
Patient refused radiation
George, Lai 
Left flank mass, backpain
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma
Lumbar X-ray, ultrasound, MRI, CT-guided FNAC
Left kidney loss of function, vertebral infiltration L1-L3
Bar-Dayan et al. 
Iliac bone distruction
Lüring et al. 
Pregnancy associated back pain
Ultrasound, MRI, sonogrpahy guided drainage and cytology
Sonography guided drainage
Iliac bone and nerve infiltration
Kalra et al. 
Tuberculoid psoas absces
CT, MRI, CT-guided biopsy
Radiotherapy after histological finding
Basu, Mahajan 
FDG-PET/CT, MRI, FNAC
Askin et al. 
Hip pain, fever
Piperacillin/Metronidazole, resection of abscess, ureter and sigmoid colon
Ureter and sigmoid colon infiltration
A 51 year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency department due to fever and general malaise.
Three years earlier, the patient had been treated for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. The initial stage of the tumor was reported to be TNM; T3b-T4a, N1, M0; International federation of gynecology and obstetrics; FIGO stage IIIb based on pelvic MRI and whole body PET-CT scan. There was an involvement of the parametria, upper third of the vagina, external compression of the right ureter causing hydronephrosis (biopsy of the pelvic sidewall on the right side revealed no cancer) and three suspicious iliac lymph nodes. She was treated with a curative intent using concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. For external beam radiotherapy, whole pelvic irradiation of 50.4 Gy was delivered in 25 fractions over 5 weeks as intensity modulated radiotherapy concurrently with chemotherapy (Vinorelbin) followed by boost irradiation to the tumor region of 9 Gy in 5 fractions. Weekly high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy delivered 20 Gy in 4 fractions (over a duration of 5-weeks). Follow up indicated no evidence of local recurrence or metastatic disease, with the exception of an enlarged paracaval lymph node.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix mostly infiltrates pelvic organs directly but it also frequently metastasizes to the paracaval retroperitoneum . Similar to our case about 31 % of stage III cervical carcinomas show local tumor recurrence after radiochemotherapy . Occurrence of retroperitoneal metastases has been considered an aggressive form of cervix carcinoma predominantly seen in HIV-positive women . Retroperitoneal metastases may infiltrate intestine or vertebrae [12–14]. This may result in extensive tumor necrosis and abscess formation as in the presented case and other case reports (Table 1).
The diagnostic approach to psoas abscess is complicated because of its non-specific symptoms which may be misleading. Therefore diagnostic steps vary widely as underlined by the cases in Table 1. Ultrasound and X-ray may help raise suspicion of psoas abscess but the final diagnosis is mostly established by CT-scan which is considered the gold-standard . Previous studies have shown that muscle metastases might be interpreted as an abscess as around 27.7 % tend to appear like an abscess on CT-images . None of the cases presented had metastases of cervical carcinoma as primary diagnosis. Only histological sampling may confirm the primary cause of the abscess. In all of the reported cases microbiological culture of the aspirate was negative (Table 1). Nevertheless some patients were initially treated with antibiotics until a final diagnosis was established as they presented with elevated inflammatory parameters. In contrast to the cases in Table 1 we obtained a positive microbiological culture which was probably due to duodenal perforation.
In the context of infectious psoas abscess the therapeutic standard is image-guided drainage accompanied by sufficiently long-term antibiotic therapy . In literature controversy exists whether percutaneous drainage is superior and more successful compared to open surgical drainage. With modern interventional radiology a CT guided percutaneous drainage is a feasible and safe intervention to perform [1, 2, 16]. It has been suggested, however, that patients with percutaneous drainage more often show recurrence if the abscess is accompanied by a higher degree of inflammation presenting on the CT-scan by inclusion of air [6, 17]. Image-guided drainage and open drainage was performed in some of the cases in Table 1 [14, 18]. Our patient was also treated with a CT-guided drain which remained in place for almost four months. Although the abscess showed a decrease in size it never resolved fully which was attributed to the malignant origin of the disease. From the other cases it is evident that only a correct histological classification of the abscess could lead to an appropriate treatment of the primary cause which is concurrent chemoradiotherapy [12, 19, 20].
The surgical exploration in our patient was undertaken because of the suspected risk of major bleeding given the sudden onset of anemia within two weeks. This might have been caused by bleeding from the gastroscopically shown duodenal ulcer/perforation. Kanthan et al. have reviewed gastro-intestinal metastases of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix that presented with gastro-intestinal bleeding . Only three of those bleeds were localized in the duodenum. As the second possible cause of bleeding we suspected hemorrhage from the inferior vena cava which was thrombosed and involved in the inflammatory process as shown by CT-imaging. The nearly complete thrombotic occlusion of the inferior vena cava is may be related to a compression of the vein by surrounding inflamed connective tissue that led to an abnormal blood flow. Data in the literature supports this assumption [21, 22]. Proposed therapeutic regimens for such an inflammatory thrombus are anticoagulation and drainage of the adjacent abscess  or percutaneous thrombectomy with anticoagulation and antibiotic therapy . However, in the case of inflammatory thrombosis secondary to metastatic disease this therapeutic approach is ineffective as demonstrated in the presented case.
Combining the information provided in literature and analyzing the course of our case retrospectively, an early operation would have been the most suitable approach to the psoas lesion. The treatment in our case was influenced by some misleading results such as the radiological interpretation of the lesion as being an abscess, the positive bacterial culture of the abscess and endoscopy showing a perforated duodenal ulcer without histological confirmation of malignancy. This case reiterates the complexity of psoas abscess regarding diagnosis and therapy. In order to be able to treat a malignant abscess successfully it is of utmost importance to obtain a sufficient histological specimen. This may allow applying a suitable therapeutic strategy without delay.
We thank Alexandra Dudek and Maximilian Mehdorn for critically revising the manuscript.
We acknowledge support from the German Research Foundation (DFG) and Leipzig University within the program of Open Access Publishing.
Availability of data and materials
The data that support the findings of this case study are included in the manuscript.
MM and WTK prepared the manuscript. TOP was in charge of radiologic diagnostic and therapy and provided CT images. WTK and MB performed the operation. MM and BJW were involved in the conservative treatment. All authors read and approved the manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this Case report and any accompanying images. A copy of written consent is available for review by the Editor of this journal.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Gruenwald I, Abrahamson J, Cohen O. Psoas abscess: case report and review of the literature. J Urol. 1992;147(6):1624–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lobo DN, Dunn WK, Iftikhar SY, Scholefield JH. Psoas abscesses complicating colonic diseases: imaging and therapy. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1998;80:405–9.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Otowa Y, Sumi Y, Kanaji S, Kanemitsu K, Yamashita K, Imanishi T, et al. Appendicitis with psoas abscess successfully treated by laparoscopic surgery. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 2014;20(25):8317–9.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Yang JY, Lee JK, Cha SM, Joo YB. Psoas abscess caused by spontaneous rupture of colon cancer. Clin Orthop Surg. 2011;3(4):342–4.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Latsios D, Chloros D, Spyratos D, Dagdilelis L, Sichletidis L. Iliopsoas tuberculous abscess associated with cervical and axillary tuberculous lymphadenopathy. BMJ Case Rep. 2011;2011:1–5.Google Scholar
- Santaella RO, Fishman EK, Lipsett PA. Primary vs secondary iliopsoas abscess. Presentation, microbiology, and treatment. Arch Surg. 1995;130(12):1309–13.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Crum-Cianflone NF. Bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral myositis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008;21(3):473–94.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Askin A, Bayram KB, Demirdal US, Korkmaz MB, Gurgan AD, Inci MF. An easily overlooked presentation of malignant psoas abscess: hip pain. Case Rep Orthop. 2015;2015:410872.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Logar HB, Segedin B, Hudej R, Petric P. Definitive radiotherapy for uterine cervix cancer: long term results for patients treated in the period from 1998 till 2002 at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana. Radiol Oncol. 2013;47(3):280–8.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Heller PB, Maletano JH, Bundy BN, Barnhill DR, Okagaki T. Clinical-pathologic study of stage IIB, III, and IVA carcinoma of the cervix: extended diagnostic evaluation for paraaortic node metastasis--a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol. 1990;38(3):425–30.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh GS, Aikins JK, Deger R, King S, Mikuta JJ. Metastatic cervical cancer and pelvic inflammatory disease in an AIDS patient. Gynecol Oncol. 1994;54(3):372–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kalra N, Aiyappan S, Nijhawan R, Sharma SC, Khandelwal N. Metastatic carcinoma of cervix mimicking psoas abscess on imaging: a case report. J Gynecol Oncol. 2009;20(2):129–31.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kanthan R, Senger JL, Diudea D, Kanthan S. A review of duodenal metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix presenting as an upper gastrointestinal bleed. World J Surg Oncol. 2011;9:113.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- George J, Lai FM. Metastatic cervical carcinoma presenting as psoas abscess and osteoblastic and lytic bony metastases. Singapore Med J. 1995;36(2):224–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Surov A, Kohler J, Wienke A, Gufler H, Bach AG, Schramm D, Behrmann C, Spielmann RP. Muscle metastases: comparison of features in different primary tumours. Cancer Imaging. 2014;14:21.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Dinc H, Ahmetoglu A, Baykal S, Sari A, Sayil O, Gumele HR. Image-guided percutaneous drainage of tuberculous iliopsoas and spondylodiskitic abscesses: midterm results. Radiology. 2002;225(2):353–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hsieh M-S, Huang S-C, Loh E-W, Tsai C-A, Hung Y-Y, Tsan Y-T, Huang J-A, Wang L-M, Hu S-Y. Features and treatment modality of iliopsoas abscess and its outcome: a 6-year hospital-based study. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:578.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Luring C, Perlick L, Rhiem K, Zhou H, Diedrich O. Differential lumbosacral pain diagnosis in pregnancy--a case with initial manifestation of squamous epithelial carcinoma. Z Orthop Grenzgeb. 2001;139(4):308–10.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Basu S, Mahajan A. Psoas muscle metastasis from cervical carcinoma: Correlation and comparison of diagnostic features on FDG-PET/CT and diffusion-weighted MRI. World journal of radiology. 2014;6(4):125–9.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bar-Dayan Y, Fishman A, Levi Z, Rachmani R. Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with psoas abscess-like metastasis in an HIV-negative patient. Isr J Med Sci. 1997;33(10):674–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim SY, Kim HC, Oh MD, Chung JW, Kim SJ, Min SK. Successful percutaneous thrombectomy of an infected vena-caval thrombus due to a toothpick. J Vasc Surg. 2011;54(5):1498–500.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schattner A, Adi M, Ben-Galim P. Low-back pain, lassitude and loss of appetite. JRSM open. 2014;5(6):2054270414523409.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar