Magnitude and predictors of unfavorable management outcome in surgically treated patients with intestinal obstruction in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC Surgery volume 23, Article number: 132 (2023)
Unless an emergency surgical intervention is conducted, intestinal obstruction may result in high morbidity and mortality. In Ethiopia, the magnitude and predictors of unfavorable management outcomes in surgically treated patients with intestinal obstruction are highly variable and inconsistent. The aim of this study was; therefore, to estimate the overall prevalence of unfavorable management outcome and its predictors among surgically treated patients with intestinal obstruction in Ethiopia.
We searched articles from databases from June 1, 2022, to August 30, 2022. Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 tests were applied. We used a random-effect meta-analysis model to overcome the impact of heterogeneity among the included studies. In addition, the association between risk factors and unfavorable management outcome in surgically treated patients with intestinal obstruction was investigated.
This study included a total of twelve articles. The pooled prevalence of unfavorable management outcome in surgically treated patients with intestinal obstruction was 20.22% (95% CI: 17.48–22.96). According to a sub-group analysis by region, Tigray region had the highest prevalence of poor management outcome, which was 25.78% (95% CI: 15.69–35.87). Surgical site infection was the most commonly reported symptom of poor management outcome (8.63%; 95% CI: 5.62, 11.64). The length of postoperative hospital stays (95% CI: 3.02, 29.08), duration of illness (95% CI: 2.44, 6.12), presence of comorbidity (95% CI: 2.38, 10.11), dehydration (95% CI: 2.07, 17.40), and type of intraoperative procedure (95% CI: 2.12, 6.97) were all significantly associated with unfavorable management outcome of intestinal obstruction among surgically treated patients in Ethiopia.
According to this study, the magnitude of unfavorable management outcome was high among surgically treated patients in Ethiopia. Unfavorable management outcome was significantly associated with the length of postoperative hospital stays, duration of illness, comorbidity, dehydration, and type of intraoperative procedure. Medical, surgical and public health measures are pivotal to reduce unfavorable management outcome in surgically treated intestinal obstruction patients in Ethiopia.
Intestinal obstruction (IO) is the term used to describe a complete or partial obstruction to the passage of intestinal contents. It is a potentially dangerous surgical emergency because there is a high rate of morbidity and mortality . It is a typical surgical emergency requiring prompt diagnosis in addition to immediate, sensible, and efficient care . It is a significant contributor to deaths, financial costs, and admissions to emergency surgical units in hospitals all over the world [3, 4].
The prevalence of IO is known to be high in India, Iran, Afghanistan, and a few African countries, including Ethiopia. It has been the leading cause of the acute abdominal disorders in Africa [5,6,7,8]. Various studies indicate that IO accounts roughly for 49–60% of all cases of surgically treated acute abdominal disorder in Ethiopia [9,10,11].
Intestinal obstruction (IO) is classified as small bowel obstruction (SBO) or large bowel obstruction (LBO) based on its anatomical location ; it can also be mechanical or functional based on the underlying pathophysiology of obstruction . SBO caused by adhesions, strangulated hernia, malignancy, and volvulus has all been implicated in the etiology of IO . The causes of IO vary according to population and location. Hernia and volvulus are the most common causes of IO in the developing world, whereas adhesions are the most common in the developed world. However, these established patterns are changing in Africa [15,16,17,18].
Although management of intestinal obstruction has improved as a result of the development of more sophisticated diagnostic tests and imaging techniques, the condition remains a major public health concern, particularly in developing countries [9, 19, 20] where Ethiopia is not an exception. Regardless of its underlying causes, a surgery for IO sometimes lead to a variety of postoperative complications. It is a difficult problem determined by numerous patient-related and clinical-related factors resulting in complications such as surgical site infection, wound dehiscence, leakage, pneumonia, and sepsis. Many of these unfavorable management outcomes could be avoided if the factors associated with the surgical treatment outcome of intestinal obstruction are predetermined and all necessary precautions are taken before and after the procedure [21, 22]. The outcome of disease management may be a good indicator of how well a country’s surgical services are performing. Several factors contribute to IO patients’ poor outcomes. Poor health-seeking behavior, ignorance, poverty, and poor clinical judgment are some of these risk factors [17, 23].
Additionally, the factors that influence unfavorable treatment outcome in surgically treated patients with intestinal obstruction in Ethiopia as well as the postoperative complications differ from district to district. Although a few studies have been reported, their results are inconsistent requiring synthesis of the available data. The purpose of this study was to determine the overall magnitude of unfavorable treatment outcome and associated risk factors in surgically treated patients with intestinal obstruction in Ethiopia which could provide a glimpse in to the understanding of the associated epidemiological and clinical data important for policy makers.
The protocol for this study can be found at (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/# my Prospero) with an identification number CRD42022358662.
The search strategy attempted to find both published and unpublished studies. Electronic databases, conference proceedings, websites, dissertations, and direct contact with the authors were used to gather information. A preliminary original search of PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholars, MEDLINE (Ovid) and CINAHL (EBSCO) was conducted on June 1, 2022, and was updated on August 30, 2022. The last search was carried out on August 30, 2022. The text words in the titles and abstracts of relevant papers, as well as the index keywords used to characterize the articles, were analyzed and used to build a thorough search strategy in partnership with a faculty librarian. The databases searched include MEDLINE (Ovid), PsycINFO (EBSCOhost), EMBASE (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Web of Science (Direct access), Scopus (Direct access), JBI EBP database (Ovid) and African Journals Online (AJOL). The search strategy’s index phrases (topic headings) and keywords were customized to each database. To locate further studies, the reference lists of all identified relevant studies and systematic reviews were searched. Google scholar, Mednar, ProQuest, and dissertation databases were also used to look for unpublished studies. To obtain the most recent estimate, articles published in English from January 2015 to August 2022 were considered. The search words were specified for a comprehensive search that included all fields in records, as well as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) to broaden the scope of the search in a PubMed advanced search. We combined keywords with the “OR” operator in the Boolean operator within each axis and then linked the search techniques of the two axes to the “AND” operator. The search terms were “magnitude” OR “epidemiology” AND “favorable treatment outcome” OR “unfavorable” AND “Ethiopia”. The definite searching detail in PubMed with MeSH terms was Magnitude[All Fields] AND predictors[All Fields] AND unfavorable[All Fields] AND (“treatment outcome“[MeSH Terms] OR (“treatment“[All Fields] AND “outcome“[All Fields]) OR “treatment outcome“[All Fields]) AND (“surgical procedures, operative“[MeSH Terms] OR (“surgical“[All Fields] AND “procedures“[All Fields] AND “operative“[All Fields]) OR “operative surgical procedures“[All Fields] OR “surgically“[All Fields]) AND treated[All Fields] AND (“patients“[MeSH Terms] OR “patients“[All Fields]) AND (“intestinal obstruction“[MeSH Terms] OR (“intestinal“[All Fields] AND “obstruction“[All Fields]) OR “intestinal obstruction“[All Fields]) AND (“Ethiopia“[MeSH Terms] OR “Ethiopia“[All Fields] OR Ethiopia* [All Fields]) were used (Table 1).
Study selection and outcome
Following the search, all citations found were compiled and imported into EndNote V20 (Clarivate Analytics, PA, USA). After deleting duplicates, two researchers (FA and MD) assessed all of the original search titles and abstracts against the predefined inclusion criteria. The two reviewers (FA and MD) separately reviewed the entire text of chosen citations against the inclusion criteria. The reasons for rejecting articles were documented and reported. Disagreements among the reviewers were settled through discussion. The study inclusion process and search results were reported in compliance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines [24,25,26].
Articles on the magnitude and predictors of unfavorable management outcome in surgically treated patients with intestinal obstruction in Ethiopia were considered.
The articles which were conducted in Ethiopia were considered.
In Ethiopia, all observational studies (cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort) with original data on the magnitude, and predictors of unfavorable management outcome in surgically treated patients with intestinal obstruction were examined.
Literature that was written in the English language.
Studies that have been considered among surgically treated patients with intestinal obstruction in Ethiopia.
Both published articles and unpublished studies were considered.
Unpublished and internet-inaccessible studies were excluded. We also excluded studies whose corresponding authors did not respond to our email inquiry for missing important data. Furthermore, after two reviewers (FA and MD) read the entire article, study that did not produce the desired result was omitted.
All necessary data were extracted in Microsoft Excel TM using a checklist data extraction format created by two authors (FA, and MD). Using the checklist, the two authors extracted data from each of the original articles independently. The data extraction format for the magnitude of unfavorable management outcome was developed based on the first author, the location of the study, the publication year, the sample size, and the magnitude of unfavorable management outcome specified for the target population.
The data extraction format for predictors was modified for each predictor (duration of illness, length of hospital stays after surgery, comorbidity, dehydration, and intraoperative procedure). These variables were chosen by the authors because they appeared most frequently as associated factors in the studies that were included in this analysis. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, additional variables were considered as risk factors if they were examined as risk factors in two or more studies. To compute the odds ratio, two researchers (FA and MD) gathered data from the primary studies in the form of two-by-two tables for each identified risk factor.
This systematic review and meta-analysis yielded two major findings. The primary outcome was the magnitude of unfavorable management outcome in surgically treated patients in Ethiopia with intestinal obstruction. The secondary outcome of the study was the predictors of unfavorable management outcome in surgically treated patients with intestinal obstruction in Ethiopia. The magnitude was determined by dividing the number of participants with unfavorable management outcome by the total number of surgically treated patients with intestinal obstruction in the study (sample size) and multiplying the result by 100.
The researchers (FA & MD) evaluated the quality of the articles included in this study using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale adapted for cross-sectional study quality rating . The tool is divided into three sections, the first of which, with five stars, assesses each study’s methodological excellence. The tool’s second section evaluates study comparability and assigns two points. The final section, which can be rated out of three stars, evaluates the original articles’ statistical analysis uniformity. The tool was used as a checklist to evaluate the overall quality of the primary articles. Using the tool as a checklist, the two authors independently assessed the quality of each of the original articles. Any disagreements among the authors about the quality evaluation results were resolved through discussion. The articles in this study range in quality from medium to high (7 out of 10 stars).
The necessary data were extracted from Microsoft Excel TM and analyzed in STATA Version 15.0. The original studies were displayed as forest plots and tables. The authors calculated the standard error magnitude for each original article using the binomial distribution method. The use of test heterogeneity x2, I2, and p-values revealed heterogeneity in the prevalence of studies that were recorded . According to the statistical analysis mentioned above, there were significant differences between the studies (I2 = 70.2%, p-value < 0.001). To estimate the combined effect of Der Simonian and Laird, a random effect meta-analysis method was used. Additionally, a univariate meta-regression model using the sample size and year of publication was used to determine the most likely source of heterogeneity, but none of the outcomes were statistically significant. At a 5% significant level, Begg’s regression intercept and Egger’s correlation tests were used to objectively inspect for potential publication bias [27, 29]. Additionally, publication bias was evaluated using Egger’s weighted regression and Begg’s rank correlation test methods (P > 0.05), which showed that it was statistically insignificant. Furthermore, subgroup analysis based on the regions in which the studies were conducted was carried out to reduce the random discrepancies between the point estimates from the primary study.
The databases Medline (Pub Med), EMBASE, Science Direct, HINARI, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and other sources produced 160 publications on the magnitude and predictors of poor management outcome in surgically treated patients in Ethiopia. One hundred five articles were removed from the preliminary records because they were redundant. The remaining 55 articles’ titles and abstracts were scrutinized, and 33 were deemed irrelevant and removed. Following that, the remaining 22 full-text papers were obtained and evaluated for eligibility according to the predetermined criteria, leading to the exclusion of 10 articles, mostly as a result of the research population [30,31,32,33] and outcome of interest [34,35,36,37,38,39] being ineligible. Each study review’s quality score ranged from 7 to 9 out of a possible 10 points; thus, no studies were excluded based on this criterion. Finally, the final meta-analysis included twelve studies (Fig. 1).
Characteristics of original articles
Twelve eligible original studies were finally included in this study. The studies were conducted between 2015 and 2022. The cross-sectional designs were used in all of the included studies. The pooled prevalence of magnitude and predictors of poor management outcome in surgically treated patients in Ethiopia were assessed in this study, which included 2,748 study participants. The studies were conducted in the Amhara [12, 40, 41], Oromia [23, 42, 43], Sothern nation nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia (SNNP) [44,45,46,47], and Tigray [10, 48] regions. The sample sizes ranged from 135 in the study done at Amhara region  to 309 in another study conducted in the SNNP  (Table 2).
The magnitude and predictors of poor management outcome of intestinal obstruction
The pooled magnitude of unfavorable management outcome among surgically treated patients was 20.22% (95% CI: 17.48–22.96) (Fig. 2). However, significant heterogeneity was found across the studies, as disclosed by I2 statistic (I2 = 70.2%, p-value < 0.001). A random effect model was used to assess the pooled prevalence of unfavorable management outcome in surgically treated patients in Ethiopia. A univariate meta-regression model was also used to identify potential sources of heterogeneity by taking publication year and sample size into account. However, none of these variables were found to be statistically significant. There was no statistically significant publication bias, according to Beggs and Eggers’ tests (P value > 0.05).
Due to significant heterogeneity among the publications included in this study, a region-based sub-group analysis was performed to investigate the likely cause of heterogeneity among the studies. The sub-group analysis shows the highest prevalence was observed in the Tigray region with a prevalence of 25.78% (95% CI: 15.69–35.87) followed by the Oromia region 20.05% (95% CI: 15.05–24.96) and SNNP region 18.87% (95% CI: 14.20-23.53) while the lowest prevalence was observed in Amhara region 18.21% (95% CI: 15.07–21.35) (Fig. 3).
Symptoms of unfavorable management outcome of intestinal obstruction
The most commonly reported types of unfavorable management outcome of intestinal obstruction were surgical site infection (8.63%; 95% CI: 5.62, 11.64), followed by pneumonia (3.01%; 95% CI: 1.59, 4.42), septic shock (2.73%; 95% CI: 1.24, 4.21), intraabdominal collection (2.31%; 95% CI: 1.04, 3.58), anastomotic leak (2.29%; 95% CI: 1.45, 3.13) and fascial dehiscence (1.80%; 95% CI: 0.83, 2.77) (Fig. 4: A-F and Table 3).
Predictors of unfavorable management outcome of intestinal obstruction
There was a significant association between the length of postoperative hospital stays (95% CI: 3.02, 29.08), duration of the illness (95% CI: 2.44, 6.12), presence of comorbidity (95% CI: 2.38, 10.11), dehydration (95% CI: 2.07, 17.40), and intraoperative procedure of resection and anastomosis (95% CI: 2.12, 6.97) and the unfavorable management outcome of intestinal obstruction among surgically treated patients in Ethiopia.
In this study, surgically treated patients who stayed in the hospital for more than 8 days after surgery were 9.38 times more likely to experience an unfavorable management outcome than their counterparts (OR = 9.38 [95% CI: 3.02, 29.08]). Similarly, patients who arrived at the facility more than 24 h were approximately 3.87 times more likely to develop unfavorable management outcome (OR = 3.87, [95% CI: 2.44, 6.12]) and patients who presented with comorbidity were 4.90 times in odds of developing unfavorable management outcome (OR = 4.90, [95% CI: 2.38, 10.11]). Similarly, patients who had dehydration were 6.01 times more likely to have a poor management outcome than those who did not have dehydration (OR = 6.01, [95% CI: 2.07, 17.40]). Finally, in terms of the type of intraoperative procedure, patients who had resection and anastomosis had a 3.85 times greater risk of developing an unfavorable surgical management outcome (OR = 3.85, [95% CI: 2.12, 6.97]) (Fig. 5: A-E).
Surgical management of intestinal obstruction may have unpredicted pleasant or bad outcomes. More importantly, poor surgical care can cause significant harm to the patient . This study aimed to determine the pooled magnitude of unfavorable management outcomes among surgically treated patients in Ethiopia and their associated risk factors.
In this study, the overall magnitude of unfavorable management outcome among surgically treated patients in Ethiopia was 20.22% comparable to studies conducted in Nigeria  and India  which found that poor management outcome had magnitudes of 20.77% and 25.89%, respectively. However, it is lower than the prevalence reported in studies from Nigeria (65.5%)  and Canada (64%) . Though the observed prevalence of poor management outcome in this study was greater than the research findings in Nigeria (10%)  and Kenya (13.6%) . The above discrepancies may be explained by differences in sociocultural, economic, and lifestyle patterns between nations, or by variations in statistical parameters such as sample size, overall study area infrastructures, internal hospital setups, and the knowledge and expertise of the medical staff regarding the diagnosis and treatment of intestinal obstruction.
The present study sub-group analysis result revealed that the pooled magnitude of unfavorable management outcome among surgically treated patients in Ethiopia varies across the regions. The magnitude of unfavorable management outcomewas highest in the Tigray region, followed by Oromia, SNNP, and Amhara regions. Similar to this finding, a previous systematic review and meta-analysis in Ethiopia discovered that the Tigray region of Ethiopia had the highest prevalence of SSI (40.6%).
In our study, the most commonly reported symptoms of unfavorable management outcome of intestinal obstruction were surgical site infection, pneumonia, septic shock, intraabdominal collection, anastomotic leak, and facial dehiscence, respectively. Similar to the current study, a previous study in Kenya , Botswana , and Nigeria  revealed that surgical site infection was the most common poor surgical outcome, followed by postoperative pneumonia and anastomotic leak. This could be due to improper preoperative and postoperative antibiotic administration . In this regard, different studies have shown that patients with intestinal obstruction should receive preoperative and postoperative antibiotics in the occurrence of perforation [57, 58]. Perioperative antibiotic administration is determined by a variety of factors, including the anatomic region undergoing the specific surgical procedure, the timing of the surgery, the patient’s age, the time of antibiotic administration, the urgency of the procedure, and the availability of the drugs [42, 59]. Most professionals do not follow the guidelines established to prevent infection by taking into account the aforementioned factors. As a result, by following WHO recommendations , the burden of SSI and other complications can be reduced.
The present study also demonstrates that there is a significant association between unfavorable management outcome of intestinal obstruction and the duration of postoperative hospital stays, length of illness, comorbidity, dehydration, and intraoperative procedure. In this study, surgically treated patients who stayed in the hospital for more than 8 days after surgery were 9.38 times more likely to experience a poor management outcome than patients who stayed in the hospital for less than 8 days. This outcome was consistent with findings from previous studies in Rwanda  and Uganda . This could be because short hospital stays reduce the likelihood of patients acquiring nosocomial infections like hospital-acquired surgical site infection, pneumonia, and deep vein thrombosis .
The current study found that patients seeking intestinal obstruction care who arrived later than 24 h were approximately 3.87 times more likely to develop poor management outcomes than patients who arrived early within 24 h. This is in agreement with the studies conducted in Rwanda , and Niger . This could be because those who arrived at the hospital early have a lower risk of developing complications such as sepsis and peritonitis, as well as a lower risk of developing gangrenous intestinal obstruction. Furthermore, early and timely intervention for patients increases the likelihood of favorability or early presentation in the case of intestinal obstruction reducing disastrous outcomes, such as a high rate of complications, long hospital stays, and high mortality .
In the present study, patients who presented with a comorbid disease were 4.90 times more likely to have unfavorable management outcome of intestinal obstruction compared to those without a co-morbid disease. This finding is consistent with the findings of a study conducted in Turkey . This may be due to the fact that coexisting conditions like diabetes may slow the healing process and raise the risk of postoperative complications like wound dehiscence and infection at the site of the incision , which are undesirable surgical management outcome of intestinal obstruction.
Similarly, patients who had dehydration were 6.01 times more likely to have a poor management outcome than those who did not have dehydration. This result is in line with the outcome of a study done in Hong Kong City, China .
Finally, in terms of intraoperative procedure bowel, patients who had resection and anastomosis had a 3.85 times greater risk of developing an unfavorable surgical management outcome than patients who did not have resection and anastomosis. This could be due to the fact that resection and anastomosis increase the risk of complications like paralytic ileus, anastomotic leak, and early postoperative adhesion .
Strengths and limitations of the study
This study is the first of its kind in Ethiopia, and it is based on a search for existing and unpublished studies, as well as the use of various perspectives to strengthen the study. However, all of the studies in this systematic review and meta-analysis are cross-sectional. As a result, it is impossible to establish temporal correlations between cause and outcome variables. The majority of the studies included in this evaluation had small sample sizes, which may have an impact on the final estimate. Furthermore, because this meta-analysis included study from only a small portion of Ethiopia, it is possible that the country’s many regions were under-represented. No data are available for Addis Ababa, Harari, Afar, Benshangul Gumze, Dire-Dawa, Gambella, or Somalia, among other regions. As a result, the results might not be representative of the aforementioned regions. Another limitation could be the possibility of missing study due to the inaccessibility of all databases. Having these limitations, we believe this study provides a pivotal data on the magnitude and associated factors of poor management outcome in surgically treated intestinal obstruction patients in Ethiopia important for policy makers.
In this study, the magnitude of poor management outcome among surgically treated patients was found to be higher in Ethiopia. Tigray had the highest prevalence of unfavorable management outcome, followed by Oromia, SNNP, and Amhara regions. Surgical site infection, pneumonia, septic shock, intraabdominal collection, anastomotic leak, and facial dehiscence were the most commonly reported symptoms of unfavorable management outcome of intestinal obstruction.
The length of postoperative hospital stays, length of illness, comorbidity, dehydration, and intraoperative procedure were significantly associated with unfavorable management outcome of intestinal obstruction. Based on the findings, it is recommended that efforts should be made to reduce unfavorable management outcome of intestinal obstruction. It is also important to note that physicians should diagnose intestinal obstruction early and implement appropriate interventions before the complication occurs. It is also advised to evaluate the comorbidities and give treatment before surgery. Similar to this, it is crucial to administer fluid resuscitation to dehydrated patients to improve surgical management outcomes for patients with intestinal obstruction. Additionally, it is recommended to implement efficient infection prevention measures in hospital settings. Finally, based on this finding, other standard procedures other than resection and anastomosis are recommended.
SSI (Surgical Site Infection), IO (Intestinal Obstruction), SBO (Small Bowel Obstruction), LBO (large bowel obstruction), SNNP (Sothern nation nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia), MeSH (Medical Subject Headings), and PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses).
The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Ullah S, Khan M: Intestinal obstruction: a spectrum of causes, Department of surgery, postgraduate medical institute Lady Reading hospital, Peshawar Pakistan. JPMI 2008, 8(1):210–213.
Dítě P, Lata J, Novotný I: Intestinal obstruction and perforation–the role of the gastroenterologist. Digestive Diseases 2003, 21(1):63–67.
Miller G, Boman J, Shrier I, Gordon PH: Etiology of small bowel obstruction. The American Journal of Surgery 2000, 180(1):33–36.
Miller G, Boman J, Shrier I, Gordon P: Natural history of patients with adhesive small bowel obstruction. British journal of surgery 2000, 87(9):1240–1247.
Ayalew T: Small intestinal volvulus in adults of Gonder region, northwestern Ethiopia. Ethiopian Medical Journal 1992, 30(2):111–117.
Demissie M: Small intestinal volvulus in Southern Ethiopia. East African medical journal 2001, 78(4):208–211.
CM T: Sabiston textbook of surgery. Surgical infections and choice of antibiotics 2004, 1:257–283.
Okello TR, Ogwang DM, Kisa P, Komagum P: Sigmoid volvulus and ileosigmoid knotting at St. Mary’s Hospital Lacor in Gulu, Uganda. East and central African journal of surgery 2009, 14(2):58–64.
Tsegaye S, Osman M, Bekele A: Surgically treated Acute Abdomen at Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia. East and Central African Journal of Surgery 2007, 12(1):53–57.
Gebre S: Causes and outcome of surgically treated non-traumatic surgical acute abdomen in Suhul general hospital, Shire, northwest Tigray, Ethiopia, a retrospective study. American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2016, 16(1):74–89.
Mustefa M, Lemessa O: Prevalence and factors associated with surgical acute abdomen at Gelemso general hospital, Oromia regional state, eastern Ethiopia. Harmaya University; 2016.
Mariam TG, Abate AT, Getnet MA: Surgical management outcome of intestinal obstruction and its associated factors at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2018. Surgery research and practice 2019, 2019.
Sridhar M, Susmitha C: Incidence and causes of relaparotomy after an obstetric and gynaecological operation. International Surgery Journal 2016, 3(1):301–304.
Tiwari SJ, Mulmule R, Bijwe VN: A clinical study of acute intestinal obstruction in adults-based on etiology, severity indicators and surgical outcome. Int J Res Med Sci 2017, 5(8):3688–3696.
Otu A: Tropical surgical abdominal emergencies: acute appendicitis. Tropical and geographical medicine 1989, 41(2):118–122.
Ogbonna B, Obekpa P, Momoh J, Ige J, Ihezue C: Another look at acute appendicitis in tropical Africa: and the value of laparoscopy in diagnosis. Tropical doctor 1993, 23(2):82–84.
Ntakiyiruta G, Mukarugwiro B: The pattern of intestinal obstruction at Kibogola Hospital, a Rural Hospital in Rwanda. East and central African journal of surgery 2009, 14(2):103–108.
Palter VN, Orzech N, Reznick RK, Grantcharov TP: Validation of a structured training and assessment curriculum for technical skill acquisition in minimally invasive surgery: a randomized controlled trial. In.: LWW; 2013.
Wossen MT: Pattern of emergency surgical operations performed for non-traumatic acute abdomen at Ayder Referral Hospital, Mekelle University, Tigrai, Ethiopia by the Year 2000–2003 Ec. Journal of Clinical Trials 2019, 9(5):1–4.
Malik AM, Shah M, Pathan R, Sufi K: Pattern of acute intestinal obstruction: is there a change in the underlying etiology? Saudi journal of gastroenterology: official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association 2010, 16(4):272.
Gupta H, Anand S: A study of forty eight patients with ilecoceacal mass presenting as intestinal obstruction requires surgical intervention and their outcome. International Surgery Journal 2020, 7(8):2563–2567.
Zbar RI: The postoperative incidence of small bowel obstruction following various abdominal procedures: a six year retrospective cohort study at Yale-New Haven Hospital. 1992.
Jemere T, Getahun B, Tesfaye M, Muleta G, Yimer N: Causes and Management Outcome of Small Intestinal Obstruction in Nekemte Referral Hospital, Nekemte, Ethiopia, 2017. Surgery Research and Practice 2021, 2021.
Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gøtzsche PC, Ioannidis JP, Clarke M, Devereaux PJ, Kleijnen J, Moher D: The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. PLoS medicine 2009, 6(7):e1000100.
Rethlefsen ML, Page MJ: PRISMA 2020 and PRISMA-S: common questions on tracking records and the flow diagram. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA 2022, 110(2):253.
Rethlefsen ML, Kirtley S, Waffenschmidt S, Ayala AP, Moher D, Page MJ, Koffel JB: PRISMA-S: an extension to the PRISMA statement for reporting literature searches in systematic reviews. Systematic reviews 2021, 10(1):1–19.
Egger M, Smith GD, Schneider M, Minder C: Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. Bmj 1997, 315(7109):629–634.
Rücker G, Schwarzer G, Carpenter JR, Schumacher M: Undue reliance on I 2 in assessing heterogeneity may mislead. BMC medical research methodology 2008, 8(1):79.
Sterne JA, Egger M: Funnel plots for detecting bias in meta-analysis: guidelines on choice of axis. Journal of clinical epidemiology 2001, 54(10):1046–1055.
Deutchman M, Connor P, Gobbo R, FitzSimmons R: Outcomes of cesarean sections performed by family physicians and the training they received: a 15-year retrospective study. The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice 1995, 8(2):81–90.
Aubrey-Bassler K, Newbery S, Kelly L, Weaver B, Wilson S: Maternal outcomes of cesarean sections: do generalists’ patients have different outcomes than specialists’ patients? Canadian Family Physician 2007, 53(12):2132–2138.
Minneci PC, Mahida JB, Lodwick DL, Sulkowski JP, Nacion KM, Cooper JN, Ambeba EJ, Moss RL, Deans KJ: Effectiveness of patient choice in nonoperative vs surgical management of pediatric uncomplicated acute appendicitis. JAMA surgery 2016, 151(5):408–415.
Abbasi N, Patenaude V, Abenhaim H: Management and outcomes of acute appendicitis in pregnancy—population-based study of over 7000 cases. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2014, 121(12):1509–1514.
Dandena F, Leulseged B, Suga Y, Teklewold B: Magnitude and pattern of inpatient surgical mortality in a tertiary hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences 2020, 30(3).
Melkie A, Alemayehu T, Tarekegn E: Pattern of acute abdomen in Dil Chora referral hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health 2016, 8(11):0–0.
Gebresellassie HW, Tamerat G: Audit of surgical services in a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. BMC research notes 2019, 12(1):1–5.
Kotiso B, Abdurahman Z: Pattern of Acute Abdomen in Adult Patients in Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. East and central African journal of surgery 2007, 12(1):47–52.
Ayenew Z, Gizaw A, Workneh D, Fentahun N: Outcome of non-traumatic surgical acute abdomen in nekemte referral hospital southwest Ethiopia: a retrospective cross-sectional study. Surgery Curr Res 2016, 7(282):1–5.
Tassew B, Haile M, Tefera T, Balda S, Gonfa K, Mubashir K: Presentation and outcome of acute abdomen in Goba Referral Hospital, Goba, Southeast Ethiopia: retrospective study. SM Journal of Family Medicine 2017, 1:1–4.
Ademe S, Edmealem A, Tegegne B, Mengesha Z: Management outcome of intestinal obstruction done by integrated emergency surgical officers and its associated factors in selected district hospitals of South Wollo Zone, North East Ethiopia in 2019 GC. Annals of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2021, 5(1):025–031.
Fentahun A, Amsalu B, Belay W, Yalewu D: Magnitude and management outcome predictors of mechanical large bowel obstruction. Ethiopian Medical Journal 2021, 59(02).
Derseh T, Dingeta T, Yusouf M, Minuye B: Clinical outcome and predictors of intestinal obstruction surgery in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BioMed Research International 2020, 2020.
Soressa U, Mamo A, Hiko D, Fentahun N: Prevalence, causes and management outcome of intestinal obstruction in Adama Hospital, Ethiopia. BMC surgery 2016, 16(1):1–8.
Atalay M, Gebremickael A, Demissie S, Derso Y: Magnitude, pattern and management outcome of intestinal obstruction among non-traumatic acute abdomen surgical admissions in Arba Minch General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. BMC surgery 2021, 21(1):1–8.
Batebo M, Loriso B, Beyene T, Haile Y, Hailegebreal S: Magnitude and determinants of treatment outcome among surgically treated patients with intestinal obstruction at Public Hospitals of Wolayita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study, 2021. BMC surgery 2022, 22(1):1–8.
Gebrie T, Handiso T, Hagisso S: Management outcome and associated factors of surgically treated non traumatic acute abdomen at Attat Hospital, Zone, Ethiopia. Int J Surg Res Pract 2019, 6:099.
Girma H, Negesso M, Tadese J, Hussen R, Aweke Z: Management outcome and its associated factors among surgically treated intestinal obstruction cases in Dilla University Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Surgery Open 2021, 33:100351.
Hagos M: ACUTE ABDOMEN IN ADULTS: A TWO YEAR EXPERIENCE IN MEKELLE, ETHIOPIA. Ethiopian medical journal 2015, 53(1):19–24.
Bankole AO, Osinowo AO, Adesanya AA: Predictive factors of management outcome in adult patients with mechanical intestinal obstruction. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal 2017, 24(4):217.
Souvik A, Hossein MZ, Amitabha D, Nilanjan M, Udipta R: Etiology and outcome of acute intestinal obstruction: a review of 367 patients in Eastern India. Saudi journal of gastroenterology: official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association 2010, 16(4):285.
Springer JE, Bailey JG, Davis PJ, Johnson PM: Management and outcomes of small bowel obstruction in older adult patients: a prospective cohort study. Canadian Journal of Surgery 2014, 57(6):379.
Otieno GN: Adhesive Post Operative small bowel obstruction In Adult patients as seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. University of Nairobi; 2016.
Birhanu Y, Endalamaw A: Surgical site infection and pathogens in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Patient safety in surgery 2020, 14(1):1–8.
Ooko PB, Sirera B, Saruni S, Topazian HM, White R: Pattern of adult intestinal obstruction at Tenwek hospital, in south-western Kenya. Pan African Medical Journal 2015, 20(1).
Mwita JC, Souda S, Magafu MG, Massele A, Godman B, Mwandri M: Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent surgical site infections in Botswana: findings and implications. Hospital practice 2018, 46(3):97–102.
Berenguer CM, Ochsner Jr MG, Lord SA, Senkowski CK: Improving surgical site infections: using National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data to institute Surgical Care Improvement Project protocols in improving surgical outcomes. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2010, 210(5):737–741.
Daskalakis K, Juhlin C, Påhlman L: The use of pre-or postoperative antibiotics in surgery for appendicitis: a systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Surgery 2014, 103(1):14–20.
Coakley BA, Sussman ES, Wolfson TS, Bhagavath AS, Choi JJ, Ranasinghe NE, Lynn ET, Divino CM: Postoperative antibiotics correlate with worse outcomes after appendectomy for nonperforated appendicitis. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2011, 213(6):778–783.
Hawn MT, Richman JS, Vick CC, Deierhoi RJ, Graham LA, Henderson WG, Itani KM: Timing of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis and the risk of surgical site infection. JAMA surgery 2013, 148(7):649–657.
Allegranzi B, Bischoff P, de Jonge S, Kubilay NZ, Zayed B, Gomes SM, Abbas M, Atema JJ, Gans S, van Rijen M: New WHO recommendations on preoperative measures for surgical site infection prevention: an evidence-based global perspective. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2016, 16(12):e276-e287.
Okeny P, Hwang T, Ogwang D: Acute bowel obstruction in a Rural Hospital in Northern in Northern Uganda. East and Central African Journal of Surgery 2011, 16(1).
Curtis L: Prevention of hospital-acquired infections: review of non-pharmacological interventions. Journal of Hospital Infection 2008, 69(3):204–219.
Kapan M, Onder A, Polat S, Aliosmanoglu I, Arikanoglu Z, Taskesen F, Girgin S: Mechanical bowel obstruction and related risk factors on morbidity and mortality. Journal of Current surgery 2012, 2(2):55–61.
Rosenberg CS: Wound healing in the patient with diabetes mellitus. Nursing Clinics of North America 1990, 25(1):247–261.
Chan HY, Cheng A, Cheung SS, Pang Ww, Ma Wy, Mok Lc, Wong Wk, Lee DT: Association between dehydration on admission and postoperative complications in older persons undergoing orthopaedic surgery. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2018, 27(19–20):3679–3686.
We would like to thank and appreciate everyone at Debre Markos University’s School of Medicine and College of Health Sciences who assisted us with this study.
No funding was obtained for this study.
Competing of interest
The authors declare no competing interests.
Consent to publish
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Adane, F., Dessalegn, M. Magnitude and predictors of unfavorable management outcome in surgically treated patients with intestinal obstruction in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Surg 23, 132 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12893-023-02017-3
- Intestinal obstruction
- Poor outcome
- System Review
- And Ethiopia