The use of grafts with multiple renal arteries has been considered a relative contraindication because of the increased incidence of vascular and urologic complications The aim of this study is to determine whether the kidney grafts with multiple arteries have any adverse effect upon post-transplant graft and patient survival.
We reviewed the records of 225 adult kidney transplants done consecutively at our institution. Twenty-nine patients (12.8%) had grafts with multiple renal arteries. We analyzed the incidence of post-transplant hypertension and vascular complications, mean creatinine levels, patient and graft survival. In 17 cases reconstruction was done as conjoined anastomosis between two arteries of equal size, and in 6 cases as end-to-side anastomosis of smaller arteries to larger arteries. Multiple anastomoses were performed in 6 cases.
In one patient postoperative bleeding occurred. Mean systolic blood pressures, creatinine levels at first year and last follow-up and complication rates were all in acceptable ranges. There was no significant difference in graft and patient survival between multiple and single renal artery allografts.
Although the kidney grafts with multiple renal arteries have been considered a relative contraindication because of the increased risk of complications, in our study allografts with multiple arteries were used successfully in kidney transplantation.