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Table 1 Demographic and surgical data of all patients

From: Electrophysiological evaluation of phrenic nerve injury during cardiac surgery – a prospective, controlled, clinical study

  Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4
  CABG with CPB Valve with CPB CABG beating heart Peripheral bypass
No. n = 38 n = 11 n = 12 n = 17
Age, yr 59 ± 9 51 ± 10 54 ± 9 46 ± 12
Male sex (%) 68 63 50 88
Hypertension (%) 63* 36 33 41
Smoker (%) 63 45* 83 88
BSA, m2 1.78 ± 0.13 1.80 ± 0.49 1.72 ± 0.13 1.69 ± 0.16
EF, % 53 ± 15 56 ± 12 52 ± 12 0
Grafts per patients 2.4 ± 0.6* 0 1.2 ± 0.4 0
Operation time, min 283 ± 62 315 ± 39 235 ± 29* 225 ± 112*
CPB time, min 101 ± 24 133 ± 32 0 0
AXC time, min 56 ± 17* 97 ± 24 0 0
IMA (%) 89 0 75 0
MV time, hr 16 ± 5 13 ± 4 14 ± 7 4 ± 3*
  1. Abbrevations are as follows: BSA, body surface area; EF, ejection fraction; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; CPB, cardiopulmonary bypass; AXC, aortic cross-clamp; IMA, internal mammary artery; MV, mechanical ventilation. * = p < 0.05