- Case report
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Resection of a malignant paraganglioma located behind the retrohepatic segment of the inferior vena cava
© Jia et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 26 December 2012
Accepted: 23 October 2013
Published: 29 October 2013
Resection of a retrocaval paraganglioma is technically challenging due to limited tumor accessibility and proximity to the vena cava.
A large, malignant paraganglioma was found behind the retrohepatic segment of the inferior vena cava of a 60-year-old male. During resection of this rare paraganglioma, the left lateral lobe of the liver, a portion of the caudate lobe of the liver, and the gallbladder were also removed. Unfortunately, the patient died six months after surgery due to hepatic metastasis.
This case demonstrates that a partial hepatectomy may be necessary to improve tumor accessibility during resection of a retrocaval paraganglioma, particularly if the tumor is proximal to the vena cava. Furthermore, palliative treatments may help prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis of malignant paragangliomas.
Paragangliomas, also known as extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas, are rare. Moreover, they are usually benign, catecholamine-secreting tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the sympathetic ganglia . Although most paragangliomas are located along the para-aortic sympathetic chains in the urinary bladder, thoracic cavity, or head and neck, they have also been found to develop in other regions of the body . Resection of paragangliomas can be difficult, due to the complex anatomy and intensive intraoperative hemodynamic control needed, particularly as retrocaval paragangliomas often develop in proximity of the vena cava [3, 4]. Correspondingly, meticulous surgical procedures are required for resection of these tumors. In addition, these surgeries are often associated with a high risk of damage to adjacent organs or blood vessels. Although several reports have described the successful resection of retrocaval paragangliomas [3–6], these tumors were either relatively small (< 5 cm) or were located near renal veins.
Here, a rare malignant paraganglioma located behind the retrohepatic segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is described. By performing a partial hepatectomy, the retrocaval tumor was successfully resected without bypass of the vena cava.
A 60-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of persistent right epigastric pain and a weight loss of 9 kg, without fever, headaches, palpitations, and sweating attacks. His two brothers had previously died of esophageal cancer and gastric cancer. At a local hospital, a computed tomography (CT) scan without using contrast medium revealed a large retroperitoneal mass that was characterized by a non-homogeneous appearance and slightly low density. Magnetic resonance imaging showed both hypo- and hyper-signal intensities on T1-weighted images, whereas only hyper-signal intensity was observed on T2-weighted images. Compression of the hepatic segment of the IVC was also observed. Due to the complex anatomy of the tumor region and the need for resection, the patient was referred to a tertiary unit for further oncological and surgical assessment.
Upon admission, the patient denied any history of hypertension or any other cardiovascular disease. A general physical examination findings were normal. The patient’s blood pressure varied at normal level (110-130/69-86 mmHg). Blood and urine analyses, liver and kidney function, and clotting time, were also normal.
The patient’s fasting blood glucose level was 7.34 mmol/L (reference range: 3.9–6.11 mmol/L) and glycosylated hemoglobin level was 7.2 mg/ dL. Serum levels of tumor markers, including carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-fe-toprotein, and carbohydrate, were normal. Preoperative levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone were assayed at various time points: 15.98 pg/mL at 0:00, 20.25 pg/mL at 8:00, and 14.40 pg/mL at 16:00. Plasma renin activity was 1.30 ng/mL (0.05–2.86 in the lying position), angiotensin II was 31.50 pg/mL (16.2–64.2, lying down), aldosterone was 91.00 pg/mL (59–174, lying down), and serum levels of cortisol were 7.95 μg/dL at 0:00, 14.53 μg/dL at 8:00, and 6.44 μg/dL at 16:00. Levels of vanillylmandelic acid and urine volume after 24 h were 31.41 mg (1.4–6.5 mg) and 2.05 L, respectively.
Intraoperatively, there was two sharp changes in hemodynamic status of the patients observed during manipulation of the tumour (blood pressure rose to 150-160/90-100 mmHg), which was treated with nicardipine hydrochloride and sodium nitroprusside. Esmolol hydrochloride was used to decrease the heart rate. After the tumor was resected, the blood pressure dropped to 70/50 mmHg and norepinephrine was pumped continuously one half hour. Blood pressure rose and steadied at 110/85 mmHg in the end.
By 3 days after surgery, the patient undergone closed thoracic drainage for the right side of massive pleural effusion and aerothorax with the obviously compression of the right lung. The closed thoracic drainage tube was removed on postoperative day 18 and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 21. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy CVD-protocol (cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2, vincristine 1.4 mg/m2, and dacarbazine 600 mg/m2 on Day 1 and dacarbaine 600 mg/m2 on Day 2; every 21 to 28 days) was recommended; however, the patient refused. During the follow-up period, the patient’s initial symptoms of paraganglioma rapidly disappeared. However, 3 months later, ultrasonography revealed hepatic metastasis (Figure 1D). The patient refused any other treatment and died 3 months later.
Paragangliomas can develop anywhere along the midline of the retroperitoneum. The exact incidence of retroperitoneal paragangliomas is unknown, although males are typically affected more frequently than females. In addition, most patients are diagnosed between 30 and 45 years of age . Clinically, patients with a retroperitoneal paraganglioma often present with back pain or a palpable mass . Approximately 10% of cases have distant metastases detected at the time of diagnosis . Only a subset of paragangliomas is clinically functional and often exhibit signs and symptoms consistent with actively secretion of catecholamine, including headaches, sweating, palpitation, and hypertension . The present case represents a rare normotensive malignant paraganglioma that developed in a relatively aged man, only presented with abdominal pain.
Based on an increase in the level of urine vanillylmandelic acid after 24 h and sharp fluctuation of intraoperative blood pressure, the normotensive paraganlioma is functional in the present case. Prior to the resection of pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, alpha blocker is still recommended. However, the effect has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The necessity of preoperative alpha blocker remains uncertain for the normotensive or asymptomatic pheochromocytom . Shao et al.  considered that preoperative alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist didn’t have benefit in maintaining intraoperative hemodynamic stability in patients with normotensive pheochromocytoma. It may increase the use of vasoactive drugs and colloid infusion. Groeben et al.  also reported that there was no correlation between the individual dose of phenoxybenzamine and the maximum blood pressure in 200 consecutive resections of catecholamine-producing tumors. In the present case, alpha-blocker wasn’t used prior to the operation. Although the intraoperative blood pressure varied sharply, there wasn’t malignant hypertension. The operation and anaesthesia process were controllable, which may be related with the improvement of surgical techniques, diagnostic tools and highly effective short acting substances to control hemodynamics intraoperatively .
Conventional treatment for paragangliomas typically involves complete surgical excision, while surgical debulking is considered a mainstay of palliative therapy for malignant paragangliomas . In some cases, complete excision is difficult due to the highly vascular nature of paragangliomas and their proximity to major blood vessels. While some authors have reported the successful resection of retrocaval paragangliomas with or without the need for vena cava reconstruction [3–6], the location of the present paraganglioma behind the retrohepatic portion of the IVC made it difficult to resect the tumor completely. A combined partial hepatectomy was performed to observe the relationship between the tumor and IVC directly. If extensive invasion of the IVC has occurred, vena cava repair or reconstruction may be required . Moreover, if the IVC is completely occluded due to compression and invasion by a tumor, the IVC can be ligated after tumor resection . If the tumor is large and extends across the entire region of the retrohepatic IVC, or invades surrounding liver tissue as observed in the present case, then a combined partial hepatectomy may be more suitable. Although both laparoscopic and open resection of retroperitoneal paragangliomas are possible, a retrocaval tumor > 5 cm is not considered a candidate for laparoscopic surgery .
Although paragangliomas are usually benign, 30–50% of all retroperitoneal paragangliomas are malignant . No definitive tests are currently available to differentiate between benign and malignant paragangliomas. Malignancy can often only be confirmed by detecting local invasion of surrounding structures upon examination at the time of resection, or by detecting the presence of metastases . Furthermore, although histological and immunohistochemical findings do not permit a definitive diagnosis of malignancy, several factors have been associated with malignancy. These include a tumor weight > 80 g, high concentration of dopamine proximal to the tumor, tumor size > 5 cm, presence of confluent tumor necrosis, and a younger patient age . In the present case, tumor invasion into the caudate lobe of the liver was observed microscopically, and hepatic metastasis was detected in the postoperative follow-up period.
Although en bloc resection was performed to remove the affected surrounding hepatic lobe and diaphragm tissue, it did not extend the life of the patient. Had the malignant nature of the tumor been identified, then the pharmacologic control of symptoms, targeted methods, and systemic antineoplastic therapy could have been applied . The most effective chemotherapy regime is the CVD-protocol, as partial - and in few cases complete- response in up to 50-55% of the patients . In contrast, palliative treatments for patients with advanced paragangliomas remain limited .
Here, we report an extremely rare case of malignant paraganglioma, in which the tumor was located behind the retrohepatic segment of the IVC. The paraganglioma was successfully resected, along with the left lateral lobe and caudate lobe of the liver. This case demonstrates that a partial hepatectomy can improve tumor accessibility, particularly if the tumor is proximal to the vena cava. In addition, palliative treatments may help prevent postoperative tumor recurrence and metastasis.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images prior to his death. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor of this journal.
We thank Medjaden Bioscience Limited for assistance in the preparation of this manuscript.
- Joynt KE, Moslehi JJ, Baughman KL: Paragangliomas: etiology, presentation, and management. Cardiol Rev. 2009, 17: 159-164. 10.1097/CRD.0b013e3181a6de40.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Young WF: Paragangliomas: clinical overview. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006, 1073: 21-29. 10.1196/annals.1353.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nozaki T, Iida H, Tsuritani S, Okumura A, Komiya A, Fuse H: Laparoscopic resection of retrocaval paraganglioma. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2010, 20: 363-367. 10.1089/lap.2010.0013.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alrasheedi S, Germain A, Zarnegar R, Klein M, Ayav A, Bresler L, Brunaud L: Robotic-assisted resection of a retrocaval paraganglioma. World J Endocri Surg. 2010, 2: 51-52.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bourke CJ, Lynch S, Irving H, Borzi PA: Retroperitoneal paraganglioma in a child: resection and vena caval reconstruction. Pediatr Surg Int. 2002, 18: 505-508. 10.1007/s00383-002-0712-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marshall L, Shah P, Yeung S, Mundy J: Synchronous presentation of cardiac and abdominal paragangliomas. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012, 93: e115-117. 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.11.067.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ahmad S, Cathy D, Sheikh M, Sweeney P: Retroperitoneal extra-adrenal paraganglioma: a rare but important diagnosis. Ir J Med Sci. 2009, 178: 211-214. 10.1007/s11845-007-0113-z.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tuncel A, Aslan Y, Han O, Horasanli E, Seckin S, Atan A: Laparoscopic resection of periadrenal paraganglioma mimicking an isolated adrenal hydatid cyst. JSLS. 2010, 14: 579-582.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Noraziana AW, Hakim B, Alik R, Mokhtar A: An undiagnosed non functioning retroperitoneum paraganglioma, complicating a gynaecological surgery; a case report. Int Med J. 2010, 9: 59-61.Google Scholar
- Bracker L, Rath S, Dralle H, Bucher M: Preoperative α-adrenoceptor block in asymptomatic Pheochromocytoma? Pro. Chirurg. 2012, 83: 546-550. 10.1007/s00104-011-2195-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shao Y, Chen R, Shen ZJ, Teng Y, Huang P, Rui WB, Xie X, Zhou WL: Preoperative alpha blockade for normotensive pheochromocytoma: is it necessary?. J Hypertens. 2011, 29: 2429-2432. 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32834d24d9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Groeben H: Preoperative α-receptor block in patients with pheochromocytoma? Against. Chirurg. 2012, 83: 551-554. 10.1007/s00104-011-2196-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scholz T, Eisenhofer G, Pacak K, Dralle H, Lehnert H: Clinical review: current treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007, 92: 1217-1225. 10.1210/jc.2006-1544.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang JH, Bae SJ, Park S, Park HK, Jung HS, Chung JH, Min YK, Lee MS, Kim KW, Lee MK: Bilateral pheochromocytoma associated with paraganglioma and papillary thyroid carcinoma: report of an unusual case. Endocr J. 2007, 54: 227-231. 10.1507/endocrj.K06-068.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chrisoulidou A, Kaltsas G, Ilias I, Grossman AB: The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2007, 14: 569-585. 10.1677/ERC-07-0074.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huang CP, Ho JY, Su CK, Cheng CL, Yang CR: Diagnosis and treatment of malignant extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma with presentation of bone pain and low urinary tract symptoms: a case report. JTUA. 2009, 20: 184-186.Google Scholar
- Andersen KF, Altaf R, Krarup-Hansen A, Kromann-Andersen B, Horn T, Christensen NJ, Hendel HW: Malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas – the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. Cancer Treat Rev. 2011, 37: 111-119. 10.1016/j.ctrv.2010.07.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2482/13/49/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.