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  1. The aim of this multicenter cohort study was to compare the clinical courses between open and laparoscopic Petersen’s hernia (PH) reduction.

    Authors: Jae-Seok Min, Kyung Won Seo, Sang-Ho Jeong, Ki Hyun Kim, Ji-ho Park, Ki Young Yoon, Tae-Han Kim, Eun-Jung Jung, Young-tae Ju, Chi-Young Jeong, Ju-Yeon Kim and Young-Joon Lee

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:195

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Free flaps are widely used in maxillofacial reconstruction; however, this approach was not feasible in the current case. It was not possible because the free flap method requires microvascular anastomosis expe...

    Authors: J. F. Sheng, P. Tang, L. Y. Ma, Y. C. Cai, J. Hu, T. Xu, C. L. Liao, C. Deng and C. Li

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:193

    Content type: Case report

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  3. The application of short femoral stems is partially restricted in revision surgery. This study will demonstrate the therapeutic effect and unsuitable situation for short stem revision.

    Authors: Zeming Liu, Bo Liu, Bingshi Zhang, Wenhui Ma, Tao Wu, Jia Huo, Sikai Liu and Yongtai Han

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:192

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) is a rare condition observed in patients with some underlying medical or surgical conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient wi...

    Authors: Yuki Inagaki, Kohei Matsuo, Yoritaka Nakano and Tadashi Kondo

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:191

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Fluorescence-guided visualization is a recently proposed technology in colorectal surgery. Possible uses include evaluating perfusion, navigating lymph nodes and searching for hepatic metastases and peritoneal...

    Authors: Gian Luca Baiocchi, Gianluca Guercioni, Nereo Vettoretto, Stefano Scabini, Paolo Millo, Andrea Muratore, Marco Clementi, Giuseppe Sica, Paolo Delrio, Graziano Longo, Gabriele Anania, Vittoria Barbieri, Pietro Amodio, Carlo Di Marco, Gianandrea Baldazzi, Gianluca Garulli…

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:190

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Free osteocutaneous fibula flap (FFF) is currently considered the best option for segmental mandibular reconstruction; however, there are only a few reports comparing secondary with primary reconstructions usi...

    Authors: Sho Yamakawa and Kenji Hayashida

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:189

    Content type: Research

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  7. Expansion of the indication for liver resection and new regimens for systemic chemotherapy have improved postoperative outcomes for synchronous colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). However, such cases can still...

    Authors: Kiichi Sugimoto, Kazuhiro Sakamoto, Yuki Ii, Kota Amemiya, Hiroyuki Sugo, Tomoaki Ito, Shinya Munakata, Makoto Takahashi, Yutaka Kojima, Yuichi Tomiki, Koichi Sato, Akio Saiura and Seiji Kawasaki

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:188

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Surgery 2021 21:214

  8. In light of the extensive application of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients and the recently investigated failure of SLNB after lumpectomy, it has become impor...

    Authors: Shishuai Wen, Yiran Liang, Xiaoli Kong, Baofeng Liu, Tingting Ma, Yeqing Zhou, Liyu Jiang, Xiaoyan Li and Qifeng Yang

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:187

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Despite the unequivocal role of progressive mobilization in post-surgical patient management, its specific effects and timing, particularly after abdominal surgery, remain debated. This study’s aim was to exam...

    Authors: Monika Fagevik Olsén, Suada Becovic and Elizabeth Dean

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:185

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) is indicated for patients with acute cholecystitis (AC) who are not indicated for urgent surgery, but external tubes reduce quality of life (QOL) while wa...

    Authors: Fumihiro Kawano, Ryuji Yoshioka, Yu Gyoda, Hirofumi Ichida, Tomoya Mizuno, Shigeto Ishii, Toshio Fujisawa, Hiroshi Imamura, Yoshihiro Mise, Hiroyuki Isayama and Akio Saiura

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:184

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Misdiagnosis or failure to intraoperatively detect occult hernia in the inguinal region can lead to the recurrence of postoperative hernia and the appearance of local pain symptoms, which affect the patient’s ...

    Authors: Jun He, Ying-jie Xu, Peng Sun, Jue Wang and Cheng-guang Yang

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:182

    Content type: Research article

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  12. COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the Italian National Health Care system at many different levels, causing a complete reorganization of surgical wards. In this context, our study retrospectively analysed the man...

    Authors: Matteo Barabino, Gaetano Piccolo, Arianna Trizzino, Veronica Fedele, Carlo Ferrari, Vincenzo Nicastro, Andrea Pisani Ceretti, Enrico De Nicola, Nicolò Maria Mariani, Marco Giovenzana, Giovanna Scifo, Massimiliano Mazza, Ruggero Vercelli, Roberto Santambrogio, Carmelo Luigiano and Enrico Opocher

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:180

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Postoperative rectourethral fistula (RUF) in patients with congenital anorectal malformation (ARM) remains a challenge for paediatric surgeons, among them persistent fistula is the most common. Various techniq...

    Authors: Xinjie Huang, Yajun Chen, Wenbo Pang, Chunhui Peng and Dongyang Wu

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:179

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The inflammation indexes in blood routine play an essential role in evaluating the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, but the effect on early recurrence has not been clarified. The study aime...

    Authors: YiFeng Wu, ChaoYong Tu and ChuXiao Shao

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:178

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and postoperative pain (POP) are most commonly experienced in the early hours after surgery. Many studies have reported high rates of PONV and POP, and have identified ...

    Authors: Reem M. Elsaid, Ashraqat S. Namrouti, Ahmad M. Samara, Wael Sadaqa and Sa’ed H. Zyoud

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:177

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The prognostic values of inflammation-based markers in well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, diagnosed according to the new 2017 World Health Organization classification, have remained uncle...

    Authors: Takayuki Miura, Hideo Ohtsuka, Takeshi Aoki, Shuichi Aoki, Tatsuo Hata, Tatsuyuki Takadate, Shimpei Maeda, Kyohei Ariake, Kei Kawaguchi, Kunihiro Masuda, Masaharu Ishida, Masamichi Mizuma, Kei Nakagawa, Takanori Morikawa, Fumiyoshi Fujishima, Takashi Kamei…

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:176

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Lymph node metastasis (LNM) plays a vital role in the determination of clinical outcomes in patients with gastric neuroendocrine tumor (G-NET). Preoperative identification of LNM is helpful for intraoperative ...

    Authors: Xianghui Li, Lihua Shao, Xiaofeng Lu, Zhengyang Yang, Shichao Ai, Feng Sun, Meng Wang, Wenxian Guan and Song Liu

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:174

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Gastrointestinal surgery in elderly individuals presents unexpected postoperative complications. However, predicting postoperative complications in elderly patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgeries is cha...

    Authors: Kei Yokozuka, Koichi Tomita, Masashi Nakagawa, Itsuki Koganezawa, Shigeto Ochiai, Takahiro Gunji, Yosuke Ozawa, Kosuke Hikita, Toshimichi Kobayashi, Toru Sano, Satoshi Tabuchi, Naokazu Chiba, Eiji Hidaka and Shigeyuki Kawachi

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:173

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Systematic nodal dissection plays a crucial role in improving survival and staging in resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients but at the cost of increasing the occurrence of recurrent laryngeal ...

    Authors: Minhao Yu and Mingjian Ge

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:172

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Clinically relevant pancreatic fistula (CRPF) is a serious complication following laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD). This study aimed to determine if C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) s...

    Authors: Jie Ma, Peiqiang Jiang, Bai Ji, Yanqing Song and Yahui Liu

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:171

    Content type: Research article

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  21. For a long time, surgical difficulty is mainly evaluated based on subjective perception rather than objective indexes. Moreover, the lack of systematic research regarding the evaluation of surgical difficulty ...

    Authors: Chengyue Ji, Yuluo Rong, Jiaxing Wang, Guoyong Yin, Jin Fan, Pengyu Tang, Dongdong Jiang, Wei Liu, Xuhui Ge, Shunzhi Yu and Weihua Cai

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:170

    Content type: Research article

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  22. This study aimed to assess a multidisciplinary team (MDT) meeting approach for the management of patients with complex extremity defects, analyze treatment recommendations, and evaluate factors influencing non...

    Authors: Dimitra Kotsougiani-Fischer, Sebastian Fischer, Jan Warszawski, Paul A. Gruetzner, Gregor Reiter, Christoph Hirche and Ulrich Kneser

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:168

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Reconstructions the soft-tissue defects of the distal lower extremities in the elderly patients (≥ 60 years old) are full of challenges because of many comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to report th...

    Authors: Ping Peng, Zhonggen Dong, Jianwei Wei, Lihong Liu, Zhaobiao Luo and Shu Cao

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:167

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Risks for living-liver donors are lower in case of a left liver donation, however, due to lower graft volume, the risk for small-for-size situations in the recipients increases. This study aims to prevent smal...

    Authors: Stefan M. Brunner, Frank W. Brennfleck, Henrik Junger, Jirka Grosse, Birgit Knoppke, Edward K. Geissler, Michael Melter and Hans J. Schlitt

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:166

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

    The Correspondence to this article has been published in BMC Surgery 2021 21:268

  25. Treatment of congenital hemivertebra is challenging and data on long-term follow-up (≥ 5 years) are lacking. This study evaluated the surgical outcomes of posterior thoracolumbar hemivertebra resection and sho...

    Authors: Beixi Bao, Qingjun Su, Yong Hai, Peng Yin, Yaoshen Zhang, Shiqi Zhu and Zhencheng Sun

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:165

    Content type: Research article

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  26. This study aimed to identify socioeconomic predictors of permanent stoma in rectal cancer treatment and examine its association with length of stay at the treatment facility.

    Authors: Riccardo Lemini, Iktej S. Jabbal, Krystof Stanek, Shalmali R. Borkar, Aaron C. Spaulding, Scott R. Kelley and Dorin T. Colibaseanu

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:163

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Pre-existing degeneration of adjacent segment is an important risk factor for adjacent-segment degeneration (ASD), but only limited and controversial studies have addressed its management.

    Authors: Xinliang Zhang, Jinwen Zhu, Yibing Li, Dingjun Hao and Wenjie Gao

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:161

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has been the standard treatment for locally advanced breast cancer for the purpose of downstaging or for conversion from mastectomy to breast conservation surgery (BCS). Locoregi...

    Authors: Hsu-Huan Chou, Wei-Shan Chung, Rong-Yao Ding, Wen-Ling Kuo, Chi-Chang Yu, Hsiu-Pei Tsai, Shih-Che Shen, Chia-Hui Chu, Yung-Feng Lo and Shin-Cheh Chen

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:160

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair is associated with higher recurrence rate. Mesh is used to reduce the recurrence rate. This retrospective study is to review our experience of biological mesh fixed wi...

    Authors: Yusheng Nie, Yao Xiong, Lei Guan, Xin Yuan, Fuqiang Chen, Jie Chen and Huiqi Yang

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:158

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Temporary stomas have been widely used to avoid the risk of complications such as anastomotic leakage after colorectal resection. Stoma closure is relatively easy; however, postoperative surgical site infectio...

    Authors: Yoshinori Yane, Jin-ichi Hida, Yusuke Makutani, Hokuto Ushijima, Yasumasa Yoshioka, Masayoshi Iwamoto, Toshiaki Wada, Koji Daito, Tadao Tokoro, Kazuki Ueda and Junichiro Kawamura

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:157

    Content type: Technical advance

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  31. Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type 1 (IDDM1) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) undergoing simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation (SPKT) are a population with diffuse atherosclerosis...

    Authors: Hans-Michael Hau, Nora Jahn, Max Brunotte, Tristan Wagner, Sebastian Rademacher, Daniela Branzan, Elisabeth Sucher, Daniel Seehofer and Robert Sucher

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:156

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Disturbance in the lymphatic drainage during D2 dissection is associated with significant morbidity. We aimed to assess the effect of fibrin glue on the reduction of postoperative lymphatic leakage.

    Authors: Habibollah Mahmoodzadeh, Ehsanollah Rahimi-Movaghar, Ramesh Omranipour, Mohammad Shirkhoda, Amirmohsen Jalaeefar, Seyed Rouhollah Miri and Amirsina Sharifi

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:155

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pseudocyst is an uncommon but important complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. While individual articles have reported many cases of abdominal CSF pseudocyst foll...

    Authors: Hong-Cai Wang, Yi-Lei Tong, Shi-Wei Li, Mao-Song Chen, Bo-Ding Wang and Hai Chen

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:154

    Content type: Case report

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  34. Situs inversus totalis is a rare anatomical variation of both the thoracic and the abdominal organs. Common bile duct strictures can be caused by malignant and benign diseases as well. 7–18% of the latter ones...

    Authors: K. Eitler, Z. Mathe, V. Papp, A. Zalatnai, A. Bibok, P. A. Deak, L. Kobori and G. Telkes

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:153

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Inguinal hernia surgery is a frequent procedure among general surgeons in Costa Rica, but the management and technique are not uniform. The International Guideline for Groin Hernia management was published in ...

    Authors: Jesús Martínez-Hoed, Katherine Cordero-Bermúdez, Providencia García-Pastor, Salvador Pous-Serrano and José A. Ortiz-Cubero

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:152

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Our aim is to determine the relationships among patient demographics, patient history, surgical experience, and conversion rate (CR) during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LCs).

    Authors: Szabolcs Ábrahám, Tibor Németh, Ria Benkő, Mária Matuz, Dániel Váczi, Illés Tóth, Aurél Ottlakán, László Andrási, János Tajti., Viktor Kovács, József Pieler, László Libor, Attila Paszt, Zsolt Simonka and György Lázár

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:151

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Echinococcus is a worldwide zoonosis, primarily causing liver lesions. Accidentally detected, these lesions enter the differential diagnosis of a tumor, including metastasis. This situation is especially chall...

    Authors: Marionna Cathomas, Paolo Abitabile, Rok Dolanc, Christine Glaser and Gieri Cathomas

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:150

    Content type: Case report

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  38. Uniportal full endoscopic posterolateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (Endo-TLIF) with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation is a promising, minimally invasive method for the treatment of lumbar spondy...

    Authors: Derong Xu, Shuo Han, Chao Wang, Kai Zhu, Chuanli Zhou and Xuexiao Ma

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:149

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Bridge to elective surgery (BTS) using self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs) is a common alternative to emergency surgery (ES) for acute malignant left-sided colonic obstruction (AMLCO). However, studies regardi...

    Authors: Yuepeng Cao, Qing Chen, Zhizhan Ni, Feng Wu, Chenshen Huang, Jinzhe Zhou, Songze Zhang, Bujun Ge and Qi Huang

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:148

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Hepatobiliary mucinous cystic neoplasms (H-MCNs) are relatively rare cystic neoplasms in the liver. The differential diagnosis of H-MCNs remains big challenging, and the management and prognosis between the he...

    Authors: Jiaqi Gao, Junhao Zheng, Jingwei Cai, Mubarak Ali Kirih, Junjie Xu, Liye Tao, Yuelong Liang, Xu Feng, Jing Fang and Xiao Liang

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:146

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Crohn’s disease (CD) recurrence can occur not only at the site of anastomosis but also elsewhere in the bowel following an ileocolic resection (ICR) procedure. The aims of the present study were to assess long...

    Authors: Hiroki Ikeuchi, Motoi Uchino, Toshihiro Bando, Yuki Horio, Ryuichi Kuwahara, Tomohiro Minagawa, Yoshiko Goto, Kurando Kusunoki, Masataka Ikeda, Naohito Beppu and Yoshio Takesue

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:145

    Content type: Research article

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