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  1. The Black Swan Theory was described by Nassim Nicholas Taleb in his book “The Black Swan”. This theory refers to “high-impact, hard-to-predict, and rare events beyond the realm of normal expectations”. Accordi...

    Authors: Marco Vacante, Velia D’Agata, Massimo Motta, Giulia Malaguarnera, Antonio Biondi, Francesco Basile, Michele Malaguarnera, Caterina Gagliano, Filippo Drago and Salvatore Salamone
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12(Suppl 1):S36

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  2. Colorectal cancer represents the most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. Owing to differences in dietary habits and lifestyle, this neoplasm is more common in industrialized countries than in dev...

    Authors: Mario Uccello, Giulia Malaguarnera, Francesco Basile, Velia D’agata, Michele Malaguarnera, Gaetano Bertino, Marco Vacante, Filippo Drago and Antonio Biondi
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12(Suppl 1):S35

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  3. Reduced libido is widely considered the most prominent symptomatic reflection of low testosterone (T) levels in men. Testosterone deficiency (TD) afflicts approximately 30% of men aged 40-79 years. This study ...

    Authors: Fabrizio Iacono, Domenico Prezioso, Ester Illiano, Giuseppe Romeo, Antonio Ruffo and Bruno Amato
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12(Suppl 1):S23

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  4. Anastomotic leakage is a major complication in colorectal surgery and with an incidence of 11% the most common cause of morbidity and mortality. In order to reduce the incidence of anastomotic leakage the C-se...

    Authors: Ilsalien S Bakker, Annelien N Morks, Henk O ten Cate Hoedemaker, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Henri G Leuvenink, Rutger J Ploeg and Klaas Havenga
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:23
  5. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are associated with great emotional costs to individuals and substantial economic costs to society. This study seeks to evaluate the effe...

    Authors: Fabrizio Iacono, Domenico Prezioso, Ester Illiano, Antonio Ruffo, Giuseppe Romeo and Bruno Amato
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12(Suppl 1):S22

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

    The Retraction Note to this article has been published in BMC Surgery 2016 16:23

  6. The incidence of lower extremity peripheral artery disease (LE-PAD) continues to increase and associated morbidity remains high. Despite the significant development of percutaneous revascularization strategies...

    Authors: Anna Franzone, Marco Ferrone, Giuseppe Carotenuto, Andreina Carbone, Laura Scudiero, Federica Serino, Fernando Scudiero, Raffaele Izzo, Raffaele Piccolo, Savio Saviano, Bruno Amato, Cinzia Perrino, Bruno Trimarco and Giovanni Esposito
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12(Suppl 1):S13

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  7. To determine whether patients with no alarm signs who ask the endoscopist to shorten their waiting time due to test result anxiety, represent a risk category for a major organic pathology.

    Authors: Fabrizio Cardin, Alessandra Andreotti, Manuel Zorzi, Claudio Terranova, Bruno Martella, Bruno Amato and Carmelo Militello
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12(Suppl 1):S11

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  8. The aim of this study was to define any benefits in terms of early outcome for laparoscopic colectomy in patients over 75 years old (OP) compared with the outcomes of a younger populations (YP).

    Authors: Vincenzo Bottino, Maria Grazia Esposito, Arianna Mottola, Giampaolo Marte, Vittorio Di Maio, Valerio Sciascia, Marco Nunziante, Giovanni Fregola, Salvatore Cuzzovaglia, Francesco Galante, Federica Andreoli, Alfredo Breglia, Maria Elena Giuliano, Domenico Papaleo, Paola Della Rocca and Pietro Maida
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12(Suppl 1):S8

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  9. The gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most frequent disease of the upper gastro-entheric tract. Surgical treatment is reserved to selected patients, affected by severe forms of disease and/...

    Authors: Giovanni Aprea, Antonio Ferronetti, Alfonso Canfora, Fabrizio Cardin, Antonio Giugliano, Francesco Guida, Antonio Braun, Melania Battaglini Ciciriello, Federica Tovecci, Giovanni Mastrobuoni and Bruno Amato
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12(Suppl 1):S4

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  10. Gastric cancer with synchronous liver metastasis remains a clinical treatment challenge. There has been a longstanding debate on the question whether surgical resection could be beneficial to long-term surviva...

    Authors: Yan-Na Wang, Kun-Tang Shen, Jia-Qian Ling, Xiao-Dong Gao, Ying-Yong Hou, Xue-Fei Wang, Jing Qin, Yi-Hong Sun and Xin-Yu Qin
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:20
  11. Inguinal hernia is a common condition and its repair (herniorrhaphy) is one of the most commonly performed procedures in general surgery. The Lichtenstein herniorrhaphy technique is a widely used and effective...

    Authors: Rannie Rabe, Clarence Pio Rey Yacapin, Brian S Buckley and Jose Macario Faylona
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:19
  12. Prophylactic antibiotics (PAs) are beneficial to breast cancer patients undergoing surgery because they prevent surgical site infection (SSI), but limited information regarding their use has been published. Th...

    Authors: Sergio A Acuna, Fernando A Angarita, Jaime Escallon, Mauricio Tawil and Lilian Torregrosa
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:18
  13. In upper limb surgery, the pneumatic tourniquet is an essential tool to provide a clean, bloodless surgical field, improving visualization of anatomical structures and preventing iatrogenic failure. Optimal in...

    Authors: Junko Sato, Yoshinori Ishii, Hideo Noguchi and Mitsuhiro Takeda
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:17
  14. This study was designed to identify risk factors for lymph node metastasis of early stage colorectal cancer, which was confirmed to a carcinoma that invaded the submucosa after radical resection.

    Authors: Bong-Hyeon Kye, Ji-Han Jung, Hyung-Jin Kim, Se-Goo Kang, Hyeon-Min Cho and Jun-Gi Kim
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:16
  15. The incision used for thyroid surgery has become shorter over time, from the classical 10 cm long Kocher incision to the shortest 15 mm access achieved with Minimally Invasive Video-Assisted Thyroidectomy. Thi...

    Authors: Fabrizio Consorti, Francesca Milazzo, Mariagiovanna Notarangelo, Laura Scardella and Alfredo Antonaci
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:15
  16. Patients having arthroscopic shoulder surgery frequently experience periods of inadvertent hypothermia. This common perioperative problem has been linked to adverse patient outcomes such as myocardial ischaemi...

    Authors: Jed Duff, Renatta Di Staso, Kerry-Anne Cobbe, Nicole Draper, Simon Tan, Emma Halliday, Sandy Middleton, Lawrence Lam and Kim Walker
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:14
  17. Hydrocephalus following spontaneous aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often associated with unfavorable outcome. This study aimed to determine the potential risk factors and outcomes of shunt-depend...

    Authors: Yi-Min Wang, Yu-Jun Lin, Ming-Jung Chuang, Tsung-Han Lee, Nai-Wen Tsai, Ben-Chung Cheng, Wei-Che Lin, Ben Yu-Jih Su, Tzu-Ming Yang, Wen-Neng Chang, Chih-Cheng Huang, Chia-Te Kung, Lian-Hui Lee, Hung-Chen Wang and Cheng-Hsien Lu
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:12
  18. To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) in relation to age, sex, clinical stage, postoperative complication, and adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who underwent curative total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy...

    Authors: Gintare Jakstaite, Narimantas Evaldas Samalavicius, Giedre Smailyte and Raimundas Lunevicius
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:11
  19. Hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) is the classical reconstruction for benign biliary stricture. Endoscopic management of anastomotic complications after hepaticojejunostomy is extremely difficult. In this work we asses...

    Authors: Mostafa A Hamad and Hussein El-Amin
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:9
  20. Communication breakdowns represent the main root cause of preventable complications which lead to harm to surgical patients. Standardized readbacks have been successfully implemented as a main pillar of profes...

    Authors: Hari Prabhakar, Jeffrey B Cooper, Allison Sabel, Sebastian Weckbach, Philip S Mehler and Philip F Stahel
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:8
  21. To describe the rationale and design of an observational cohort study analyzing the effects of endoscopic Totally Extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair on male fertility (MAIN study).

    Authors: Nelleke Schouten, Thijs van Dalen, Niels Smakman, Sjoerd G Elias, Cees van de Water, Roan J Spermon, Laurens Sibinga Mulder and Ine P J Burgmans
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:7
  22. Modern high-velocity projectiles produce temporary cavities and can thus cause extensive tissue destruction along the bullet path. It is still unclear whether gelatin blocks, which are used as a well-accepted ...

    Authors: Constantin von See, Majeed Rana, Marcus Stoetzer, Horst Kokemueller, Martin Ruecker and Nils-Claudius Gellrich
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:6
  23. Five percent of all patients with breast cancer have distant metastatic disease at initial presentation. Because metastatic breast cancer is considered to be an incurable disease, it is generally treated with ...

    Authors: Jetske Ruiterkamp, Adri C Voogd, Vivianne CG Tjan-Heijnen, Koop Bosscha, Yvette M van der Linden, Emiel JTh Rutgers, Epie Boven, Maurice JC van der Sangen and Miranda F Ernst
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:5
  24. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has gained acceptance among surgeons, for the treatment of open abdomen, since very high closure rates have been reported with this method, compared to other kinds of wou...

    Authors: Sandra Lindstedt, Malin Malmsjö, Johan Hansson, Joanna Hlebowicz and Richard Ingemansson
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:4
  25. Ultrasonic scalpel (UC) and monopolar electrocautery (ME) are common tools for soft tissue dissection. However, morphological data on the related tissue alteration are discordant. We developed an automatic dev...

    Authors: Kia Homayounfar, Johanna Meis, Klaus Jung, Bernd Klosterhalfen, Thilo Sprenger, Lena-Christin Conradi, Claus Langer and Heinz Becker
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:3
  26. A response to Seiler et al: Interrupted or continuous slowly absorbable sutures for closure of primary elective midline abdominal incisions: a multicenter randomized trial (INSECT: ISRCTN24023541). Ann Surg 20...

    Authors: Lars Fischer, Hanns P Knaebel, Henriette Golcher, Thomas Bruckner, Markus K Diener, Jeannine Bachmann, Markus W Büchler and Christoph M Seiler
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:2
  27. A beneficial effect of gentamicin supplemented mesh material on tissue integration is known. To further elucidate the interaction of collagen and MMP-2 in chronic foreign body reaction and to determine the sig...

    Authors: Marcel Binnebösel, Klaus T von Trotha, Christina Ricken, Christian D Klink, Karsten Junge, Joachim Conze, Marc Jansen, Ulf P Neumann and Petra Lynen Jansen
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2012 12:1
  28. To examine commonly used scoring systems, designed to predict overall outcome in critically ill patients, for their ability to select patients with an abdominal sepsis that have ongoing infection needing relap...

    Authors: Oddeke van Ruler, Jordy JS Kiewiet, Kimberley R Boer, Bas Lamme, Dirk J Gouma, Marja A Boermeester and Johannes B Reitsma
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:38
  29. Every surgical suture compresses the enclosed tissue with a tension that depends from the knotting force and the resistance of the tissue. The aim of this study was to identify the dynamic change of applied su...

    Authors: Christian D Klink, Marcel Binnebösel, Hamid P Alizai, Andreas Lambertz, Klaus T vonTrotha, Elmar Junker, Catherine Disselhorst-Klug, Ulf P Neumann and Uwe Klinge
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:36
  30. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective treatment for end-stage renal disease. It allows patients more freedom to perform daily activities compared to haemodialysis. Key to successful PD is the presence of a ...

    Authors: Sander M Hagen, Arjan M van Alphen, Jan NM IJzermans and Frank JMF Dor
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:35
  31. The CARTS study is a multicenter feasibility study, investigating the role of rectum saving surgery for distal rectal cancer.

    Authors: Guus MJ Bökkerink, Eelco JR de Graaf, Cornelis JA Punt, Iris D Nagtegaal, Heidi Rütten, Joost JME Nuyttens, Esther van Meerten, Pascal G Doornebosch, Pieter J Tanis, Eric J Derksen, Roy S Dwarkasing, Corrie AM Marijnen, Annemieke Cats, Rob AEM Tollenaar, Ignace HJT de Hingh, Harm JT Rutten…
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:34
  32. Anastomotic or marginal ulcers occur in 0.6 to 16% of patients after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y-Gastric Bypass. Initial therapy aims at eliminating known risk factors including smoking, Helicobacter pylori infecti...

    Authors: Daniel C Steinemann, Marc Schiesser, Pierre-Alain Clavien and Antonio Nocito
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:33
  33. Therapeutic strategies aiming to reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury by conditioning tissue tolerance against ischemia appear attractive not only from a scientific perspective, but also in clinics. Although pre...

    Authors: Robert Kraemer, Johan Lorenzen, Mohammad Kabbani, Christian Herold, Marc Busche, Peter M Vogt and Karsten Knobloch
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:32
  34. Accidental or intentional subcutaneous and/or intramuscular injection of metallic mercury is an uncommon form of poisoning. Although it does not carry the same risk as mercury vapour inhalation, it may cause d...

    Authors: Joerg Friesenbichler, Werner Maurer-Ertl, Patrick Sadoghi, Elisabeth Wolf and Andreas Leithner
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:31
  35. Many factors have been put forward as a driving mechanism of surgery-triggered adhesion formation (AF). In this study, we underline the key role of specific surgical trauma related with open surgery (OS) and l...

    Authors: Sergei V Pismensky, Zhomart R Kalzhanov, Marina Yu Eliseeva, Ioannis P Kosmas and Ospan A Mynbaev
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:30
  36. Degenerative spinal stenosis and instability requiring multilevel spine surgery has been associated with large blood losses. Factors that affect perioperative blood loss include time of surgery, surgical proce...

    Authors: Stefan Endres, Martin Heinz and Axel Wilke
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:29
  37. Obesity is a major public health problem in both developed and developing countries alike and leads to a series of changes in respiratory physiology. There is a strong correlation between obesity and cardiopul...

    Authors: Luis VF Oliveira, Isabella C Aguiar, Raquel P Hirata, Newton S Faria Junior, Israel S Reis, Luciana MM Sampaio, Claudia S Oliveira, Paulo TC Carvalho, Fernando SS Leitao Filho, Lilian C Giannasi, Lia Azevedo Pinto, Carlos Alberto Malheiros and Wilson Rodrigues Freitas Jr
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:28
  38. In the everyday surgical life, staff may experience that patients with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) seem reluctant to participate in alcohol intervention programs. The objective was therefore to assess accepta...

    Authors: Bolette Pedersen, Kristian Oppedal, Lisa Egund and Hanne Tønnesen
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:26
  39. Mesh repair of incisional hernia is superior to the conventional technique. From all available materials for open surgery polypropylene (PP) is the most widely used. Development resulted in meshes with larger ...

    Authors: Roland Ladurner, Costanza Chiapponi, Quirin Linhuber and Thomas Mussack
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:25
  40. Emerging attempts have been made to reduce operative trauma and improve cosmetic results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is a trend towards minimizing the number of incisions such as natural translumina...

    Authors: Daniel C Steinemann, Dimitri A Raptis, Georg Lurje, Christian E Oberkofler, Roland Wyss, Adrian Zehnder, Mickael Lesurtel, René Vonlanthen, Pierre-Alain Clavien and Stefan Breitenstein
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:24
  41. Research estimates of inadvertent harm to patients undergoing modern healthcare demonstrate a serious problem. Much attention has been paid to analysis of the causes of error and harm, but researchers have typ...

    Authors: Peter McCulloch and Ken Catchpole
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:23
  42. Hepatic resection is still associated with significant morbidity. Although the period of parenchymal transection presents a crucial step during the operation, uncertainty persists regarding the optimal techniq...

    Authors: Nuh N Rahbari, Heike Elbers, Moritz Koch, Thomas Bruckner, Patrick Vogler, Fabian Striebel, Peter Schemmer, Arianeb Mehrabi, Markus W Büchler and Jürgen Weitz
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:22
  43. Surgical site infection (SSI) continues to be a major source of morbidity and mortality in developing countries despite recent advances in aseptic techniques. There is no baseline information regarding SSI in ...

    Authors: Brian Mawalla, Stephen E Mshana, Phillipo L Chalya, Can Imirzalioglu and William Mahalu
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:21
  44. The median laparotomy is frequently used by abdominal surgeons to gain rapid and wide access to the abdominal cavity with minimal damage to nerves, vascular structures and muscles of the abdominal wall. Howeve...

    Authors: Joris J Harlaar, Eva B Deerenberg, Gabrielle H van Ramshorst, Harold E Lont, Ed CMH van der Borst, Willem R Schouten, Joos Heisterkamp, Helena C van Doorn, Huib A Cense, Frits Berends, Hein BAC Stockmann, Wietske W Vrijland, Esther CJ Consten, Reyer T Ottow, Peter MNYH Go, John J Hermans…
    Citation: BMC Surgery 2011 11:20

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