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Table 1 Clinicopathological characteristics

From: Robotic surgery contributes to the preservation of bowel and urinary function after total mesorectal excision: comparisons with transanal and conventional laparoscopic surgery

Item Value
Age (year) 66 (34–81)
Gender, n (%)
 Male 50 (78.1)
 Female 14 (21.9)
Body mass index (kg/m2) † 22.8 (18.6–31.4)
Smoking, n (%) 22 (34.3)
Hypertension, n (%) 25 (39.1)
Diabetes, n (%) 11 (17.2)
ASA ≥ 3, n (%) 3 (4.7)
Tumor size (mm) † 34.5 (0–80)
Distance from anal verge to tumor (mm) † 50 (25–80)
cT3, n (%) 39 (60.9)
cN positive, n (%) 23 (35.9)
Preoperative treatment, n (%) 36 (56.3)
Approach, n (%)
 Robotic 35 (54.7)
 Transanal 15 (23.4)
 Laparoscopic 14 (21.9)
Type of anastomosis, n (%)
 Double staple technique 32 (50.0)
 Hand sewn 32 (50.0)
Anastomotic height from anal verge (mm) 40 (20–60)
Diverting stoma, n (%) 61 (95.3)
Lateral lymph node dissection, n (%) 38 (59.4)
Operation time (min) 395 (170–639)
Blood loss (ml) 50 (0–3137)
Complications (Clavien-Dindo), n (%)
 I–II 39 (56.2)
 III 5 (7.8)
 IV 1 (1.6)
 V 0 (0)
Anastomotic leakage, n (%) 5 (7.8)
 Grade B 4 (6.2)
 Grade C 1 (1.6)
Pathological TNM stage, n (%)
 0 11 (17.2)
 I 28 (43.8)
 II 12 (18.8)
 III 11 (17.2)
 IV 2 (3.1)
Radial margin ≤ 1 mm, n (%) 3 (4.7)
  1. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists
  2. Median (Range)