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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the glioblastoma patients overall and in the training and validation datasets

From: A nomogram for individualized prediction of overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma: a real-world retrospective cohort study

Variable Overall (N = 987) Training set (N = 694) Validation set (N = 293) P-value
Gender [N (%)]
 Female 365 (37.0) 265 (38.2) 100 (34.1) 0.257
 Male 622 (63.0) 429 (61.8) 193 (65.9)
Age_at_surgery [mean (SD)] 52.60 (14.12) 52.89 (13.62) 51.91 (15.23) 0.322
KPS score before surgery [mean (SD)] 85.53 (8.73) 85.50 (8.80) 85.62 (8.57) 0.846
Days_in_hospital [mean (SD)] 18.99 (9.35) 18.79 (9.75) 19.46 (8.36) 0.338
Surgical_resection [N (%)]
 Total resection 620 (80.7) 438 (81.1) 182 (79.8) 0.67
 Subtotal resection 138 (18.0) 94 (17.4) 44 (19.3)
 Partial resection 10 (1.3) 8 (1.5) 2 (0.9)
Number_of_operations [N (%)]
 1 810 (94.0) 571 (94.2) 239 (93.4) 0.093
 2 50 (5.8) 35 (5.8) 15 (5.9)
 3 2 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.8)
Laterality [N (%)]
 Left 383 (48.7) 261 (47.1) 122 (52.6) 0.186
 Right 403 (51.3) 293 (52.9) 110 (47.4)
Location [N (%)]
 Callosum 43 (5.2) 26 (4.5) 17 (6.9) 0.419
 Frontal lobe 368 (44.3) 267 (45.8) 101 (40.7)
 Parietal lobe 87 (10.5) 65 (11.1) 22 (8.9)
 Temporal lobe 267 (32.1) 178 (30.5) 89 (35.9)
 Occipital lobe 33 (4.0) 25 (4.3) 8 (3.2)
 Insular lobe 27 (3.2) 18 (3.1) 9 (3.6)
 Cerebellum 6 (0.7) 4 (0.7) 2 (0.8)
IDH1 status [N (%)]
 Wild-type 680 (91.3) 471 (91.3) 209 (91.3) 1
 Mutant-type 65 (8.7) 45 (8.7) 20 (8.7)
Ki-67 index [N (%)]
 Less than 5% 38 (4.0) 27 (4.0) 11 (3.9) 0.568
 5–20% 559 (58.7) 401 (59.8) 158 (56.2)
 More than 20% 355 (37.3) 243 (36.2) 112 (39.9)
MGMT status [N (%)]
 Unmethylated 457 (61.0) 323 (61.8) 134 (59.3) 0.58
 Methylated 292 (39.0) 200 (38.2) 92 (40.7)
TERT status [N (%)]
 Wild-type 85 (43.6) 57 (41.9) 28 (47.5) 0.575
 Mutant-type 110 (56.4) 79 (58.1) 31 (52.5)
Radiotherapy [N (%)]
 No 192 (19.5) 136 (19.6) 56 (19.1) 0.93
 Yes 795 (80.5) 558 (80.4) 237 (80.9)
Chemotherapy [N (%)]
 No 219 (22.2) 160 (23.1) 59 (20.1) 0.355
 Yes 768 (77.8) 534 (76.9) 234 (79.9)
Adjuvant therapy [N (%)]
 Radiotherapy and chemotherapy 728 (73.8) 508 (73.2) 220 (75.1) 0.619
 Radiotherapy only 67 (6.8) 50 (7.2) 17 (5.8)
 Chemotherapy only 39 (4.0) 25 (3.6) 14 (4.8)
 No adjuvant therapy 153 (15.5) 111 (16.0) 42 (14.3)
Recurrence status [N (%)]
 No recurrence 174 (17.6) 129 (18.6) 45 (15.4) 0.261
 Recurrence 813 (82.4) 565 (81.4) 248 (84.6)
Survival status [N (%)]
 Alive 221 (22.4) 161 (23.2) 60 (20.5) 0.393
 Dead 766 (77.6) 533 (76.8) 233 (79.5)
  1. KPS Karnofsky performance status, IDH1 isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, MGMT O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, TERT telomerase reverse transcriptase