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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of opioid-naïve patients undergoing one of the following procedures: prostatectomy, partial colectomy, and hysterectomy between 2012 and 2017 within the Marketscan database

From: Association of surgical approach and prolonged opioid prescriptions in patients undergoing major pelvic cancer procedures

Procedure → Prostatectomy N = 6838 Partial colectomy N = 4480 Hysterectomy N = 1620
Co-variates↓ open 991 (14.5%) MIS 5847 (85.5%) p-value open 1721 (38.4) MIS 2759 (61.6) p-value open 942 (58.2) MIS 678 (41.9) p-value
Age 0.124 0.028 < 0.001
 18–34 0 1 (0.0)   33 (1.9) 41 (1.5)   11 (1.2) 10 (1.5)  
 35–44 15 (1.5) 85 (1.5) 198 (11.5) 235 (8.5) 80 (8.5) 39 (5.8)
 45–54 220 (22.2) 1504 (25.7) 600 (34.9) 1052 (38.1) 296 (31.4) 164 (24.2)
 55–64 756 (76.3) 4257 (72.8) 890 (51.7) 1431 (51.8) 555 (58.9) 465 (68.6)
Gender   0.718  
 Male   865 (50.3) 1402 (50.8)     
 female 856 (49.7) 1357 (49.2)
Elixhauser comorbidity 0.462 < 0.001 0.252
 0 204 (20.6) 1268 (21.7)   184 (10.7) 344 (12.5)   111 (11.8) 100 (14.8)  
 1 346 (34.9) 1929 (31.0) 369 (21.4) 658 (23.9) 206 (21.9) 139 (20.5)
  ≥ 2 441 (44.5) 2650 (45.3) 1168 (67.9) 1757 (63.7) 625 (66.4) 439 (65.8)
Geographic region < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Northeast 183 (18.5) 1225 (21.0)   324 (18.8) 563 (20.4)   218 (23.1) 170 (25.1)  
 North central 193 (19.5) 1521 (26.0) 389 (22.6) 567 (22.6) 221 (23.5) 159 (23.5)
 South 459 (46.3) 2234 (38.2) 797 (46.3) 1202 (43.6) 363 (38.5) 175 (25.8)
 West 145 (14.6) 830 (14.2) 195 (11.3) 414 (15.0) 132 (14.0) 170 (25.1)
 Unknown 11 (1.1) 37 (0.6) 16 (0.9) 13 (0.4) 8 (0.9) 4 (0.6)
Residence < 0.001 < 0.001 0.456
 Rural 183 (18.5) 819 (14.0)   347 (20.2) 392 (14.2)   133 (14.1) 87 (12.8)  
 Urban 808 (81.5) 5028 (86.0) 1374 (79.8) 2367 (85.8)   809 (85.9) 591 (87.2)
Health plan 0.521 0.788 0.831
 Less restrictive 643 (64.9) 3855 (65.9)   1142 (66.4) 1820 (66.0)   626 (66.5) 454 (67.0)  
 More restrictive 348 (35.1) 1992 (34.1) 579 (33.6) 939 (34.0) 316 (33.6) 224 (30.4)
Colostomy    233 (13.5) 93 (3.4) < 0.001   
Low anterior resection 360 (20.9) 764 (27.7) < 0.001
Mental health disorders
Depression 51 (5.1) 319 (5.5) 0.691 103 (6.0) 193 (7.0) 0.185 62 (6.6) 57 (8.4) 0.165
Substance abuse 42 (4.2) 252 (4.3) 0.918 76 (4.4) 119 (4.3) 0.870 22 (2.3) 11 (1.6) 0.316
Other 30 (3.0) 226 (3.9) 0.199 75 (4.3) 107 (3.9) 0.429 41 (4.4) 28 (4.1) 0.827
Opioid prescriptions
 Perioperative 776 (78.3) 4680 (80.0) 0.208 1223 (71.1) 1980 (71.8) 0.613 761 (80.8) 536 (79.1) 0.390
 Prolonged 65 (8.4) 262 (5.6) 0.004 223 (18.2) 240 (12.1) < 0.001 109 (14.3) 50 (9.3) 0.007
  1. Abbreviation: MIS minimally invasive surgery
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