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Table 5 Mean (SD) performance outcomes per group on Task 2

From: Assessment of validity evidence for the RobotiX robot assisted surgery simulator on advanced suturing tasks

Task 2: intracorporal suturing Robotic experience Laparoscopic experience Novices P-values
Movements n = 14 n = 26 n = 28 R vs N L vs N R vs L
 Entrance and exits points 5.7 (2.1) 7.7 (4.6) 11.4 (8.8) 0.003 0.064 0.075
Safety
 Dropped needles 3.6 (3.5) 5.8 (6.8) 10.8 (10.4) 0.002 0.039 0.268
 Unnecessary piercing 2.6 (2.6) 6.3 (5.0) 10.4 (8.4) < 0.001 0.036 0.004
 Needle outside of view 3.3 (4.8) 6.2 (9.9) 8.1 (11.2) 0.136 0.534 0.301
 Suture breakage 0.0 (0.0) 0.3 (0.5) 0.6 (1.2) 0.007 0.133 0.016
Task specific
 Total knots 1.5 (0.9) 1.3 (0.7) 1.1 (0.4) 0.123 0.324 0.373
 Surgeon knots 0.6 (1.0) 0.6 (0.8) 0.8 (0.6) 0.473 0.281 0.985
 Needle precision 96 (8) 79 (30) 90 (13) 0.042 0.101 0.008
 Total time 171 (77) 277 (172) 546 (328) < 0.001 < 0.001 0.011
  1. Data in this table represents mean performance scores and standard deviation. R Robotic experienced, L Laparoscopic experienced, N Novices. P-values were calculated using independent t-test, values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant (displayed in bold)