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Table 4 Mean (SD) performance outcomes per group on Task 1

From: Assessment of validity evidence for the RobotiX robot assisted surgery simulator on advanced suturing tasks

Task 1: Railroad track Robotic experience Laparoscopic experience Novices P-values
Movements N = 15 N = 26 N = 29 R vs N L vs N R vs L
 Path length left 1655 (478) 3469 (1577) 4157 (1870) < 0.001 0.148 < 0.001
 Path length right 2196 (771) 3879 (2144) 3885 (1720) 0.001 0.991 0.001
 Movements left 168 (57) 342 (159) 422 (176) < 0.001 0.085 < 0.001
 Movements right 234 (76) 394 (191) 425 (170) < 0.001 0.533 0.001
Safety
 Inaccurate punctures 5.5 (3.1) 10.9 (7.3) 13.4 (9.4) < 0.001 0.274 0.002
 Instrument collisions 4.0 (3.9) 13.9 (13.9) 15.9 (10.5) < 0.001 0.544 0.002
 Times out of view 1.3 (1.0) 2.4 (4.0) 1.7 (2.1) 0.663 0.435 0.581
Task specific
 Needle precision 63 (15) 48 (20) 47 (19) 0.007 0.926 0.014
 Total errors 13.9 (12.1) 11.1 (5.5) 11.3 (3.3) 0.452 0.896 0.322
 Total time 265 (92) 475 (219) 597 (225) < 0.001 0.047 < 0.001
  1. Data in this table represents mean performance scores and standard deviation. R Robotic experienced, L Laparoscopic experienced, N Novices. P-values were calculated using independent t-test, values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant (displayed in bold).