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Table 3 Grouping of patients into difficulty levels and outcomes

From: The external validation of a difficulty scoring system for predicting the risk of intraoperative complications during laparoscopic liver resection

 Overall
N (%)
Low
(0–2)
Moderate
(3–5)
High
(6–9)
Extremely high
(10–15)
P-valuea
Number of patients12836
(28.1%)
63
(49.2%)
27
(21.1%)
2
(1.6%)
/
Intraoperative complication [26]23
(17.9%)
0
(0%)
6
(9.5%)
15
(55.5%)
2
(100%)
< 0.001
Transfusion required17
(13.2%)
1
(2.7%)
11
(17.5%)
4
(14.8%)
1
(50.0%)
0.042
Operative time (min)*155
(25–360)
120
(45–240)
150
(25–360)
210
(120–350)
310
(260–360)
< 0.001
Hepatic pedicle clamping30
(23.4%)
2
(5.6%)
19
(30.2%)
9
(33.3%)
0
(0.0%)
0.009
Total hepatic pedicle clamping (min)*30
(10–75)
37.5
(35–40)
30
(10–75)
40
(10–60)
0
(0–0)
0.033
Postoperative morbidity (Clavien-Dindo 3a ≤ 4b) [32]12
(9.3%)
1
(2.7%)
4
(6.3%)
6
(22.2%)
1
(50.0%)
0.028
  1. *Continuous variables are reported as median (range); ANOVA test. aP-values were calculated by chi-square test or ANOVA, in both cases without considering the extremely high-risk group