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Table 1 Reported cases of hepatocellular carcinoma with IVC involvement

From: Long-term survival after anterior approach right hepatectomy combined with inferior vena cava thrombectomy using trans-diaphragmatic intrapericardial inferior vena cava occlusion: a case report and review of the literature

No Literature Age/Sex Location Size IVC Involvement Treatment Technique Additional Treatment Survival Outcome
1 Tastekin [13] 24/male Rt lobe 6 × 6 × 4 cm III LV Resection of liver tumor Resection of tumor thrombus 18 mo Dead
2 Ehrich [14] 62/male Lt lobe ND III RA Resection of tumor thrombus Radiation therapy 12 mo Alive
3 Li [15] 66/male Rt lobe 12 cm III RA Resection of liver tumor and tumor thrombus No 6 mo Dead
4 Oncale [16] 76/male Rt lobe 12 × 8 cm II Sorafenib No 14 mo Dead
5 Miller [17] 30/male Extensive involvement ND III RA Resection of tumor thrombus Radiation therapy and immunotherapy 6 mo Alive
6 Chang [4] 57/male RAS 9.6 × 8.6 cm III RA Thalidomide No 12 mo Alive
76/male MHV 2 cm III RA TACE Thalidomide 18 mo Dead
67/female Seg5, Seg8 7 cm III RA Thalidomide No 5 mo Alive
7 Inoue [39] 67/male Seg2, Seg3 1.2 cm III RA Resection of liver tumor and tumor thrombus No 27 mo Alive
8 Luo [18] 35/male Lt lobe, RAS ND III RA Percutaneous microwave ablation No 6 mo Dead
9 Goto [19] 36/female Rt lobe ND III RA Resection of tumor thrombus TACE 7 mo Dead
10 Kawakam [20] 66/female Extensive involvement ND III RA Symptomatic treatment TACE 5 mo Dead
11 Sun [21] 45/male Lt lobe ND III RA TACE No 46 mo Alive
12 Georgen [22] 22/female Seg7 6 cm III RA Resection of liver tumor and tumor thrombus No 30 mo Dead
13 Noguchi [23] 66/male Rt lobe 2 cm III RA Symptomatic treatment No 1 mo Dead
14 Ohta [43] 60/male Rt lobe ND III RA Resection of liver tumor and tumor thrombus Sorafenib 10 mo Alive
15 Sengodan [24] 44/male Rt lobe 5.6 × 7.6 × 5.5 cm III RA Sorafenib Anticoagulation 2 mo Dead
16 Hayashida [25] 72/male Lt lobe ND III RA Resection of tumor thrombus TACE 6 mo Dead
17 Sawada [26] 62/male Extensive involvement ND III RA Glypican-3-derived peptide vaccination TACE, sorafenib 56 d Dead
18 Shivathirthan [40] 71/male Seg 7 ND III RA Resection of liver tumor and tumor thrombus TACE ND ND
19 Miyazawa [27] 55/male RAS 7 cm III RA Resection of liver tumor and tumor thrombus No 12 mo Alive
20 Li [28] 64/male Seg 6, Seg7 5.3 × 3.6 cm III RA Resection of liver tumor and tumor thrombus No 6 mo Dead
21 Wu [42] 42/male RAS 1.5 cm III RA Resection of liver tumor and tumor thrombus TACE 14 mo Dead
22 Giuliani [29] 47/male Lt lobe Mutiple III RA External beam radiation therapy No 7 mo Dead
23 Leo [30] 45/male Lt lobe ND III RA Resection of liver tumor and tumor thrombus No 6 mo Alive
24 Florman [3] 55/male Lt lobe 18 × 3 × 7 cm III RA Resection of liver tumor and tumor thrombus No 3 mo Alive
25 Sung [31] 71/male Rt lobe ND III RA Resection of tumor thrombus Sorafenib 7 mo Alive
26 Ohwada [32] 77/female LLS 10 cm III RA Resection of liver tumor and tumor thrombus No 3 mo Alive
27 Lin [33] 57/male Rt lobe 4.5 cm III RA Resection of liver tumor and tumor thrombus No 3 D Dead
28 Yogita [34] 61/male LMS 3 cm III RA Resection of liver tumor and tumor thrombus No 56 mo Dead
29 Masaki [35] 47/male Seg 8 3 × 2.5 × 2 cm III RA Resection of tumor thrombus TAE and radiation therapy 8 mo Dead
48/male Seg 7 ND III LP Resection of tumor thrombus in the IVC and LPA TAE 29 D Dead
30 Kashima [20] 66/male Rt lobe 10 × 7 cm III RA Resection of liver tumor and tumor thrombus TACE 59 mo Alive
31 Fujisaki [36] 38/female LLS 8 × 8 cm III RA Resection of liver tumor and tumor thrombus No 15 mo Alive
32 Dazai [37] 42/male Rt lobe ND III RA TACE No 7 mo Dead
33 Kurahashi [38] 81/male Rt lobe 11.5 cm III RA Resection of liver tumor and tumor thrombus Oncologic treatment 72 mo Alive
  1. IVC inferior vena cava, LLS left lateral segment, LMS left medial segment, Lt left, MHV middle hepatic vein, ND not described, RA right atrium, RAS right anterior segment, Rt right, Seg segment, TACE transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, TAE transcatheter arterial embolization, LPA Left pulmonary artery, LP left pulmonary, mo months, II type II (mentioned in Fig. 4), III type III (mentioned in Fig. 4)