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Table 1 Probiotics and synbiotics in the included RCTs

From: Postoperative changes of the microbiome: are surgical complications related to the gut flora? A systematic review

Author Preparation Duration of application
Kanazawa et al. Bifidobacterium breve
Lactobacillus casei
Galactooligosaccharides
Start: 1 day postoperative
Stop: 14 days postoperative
Reddy et al. Lactobacillus acidophilus
Lactobacillus bulgaris
Bifidobacterium lactis
Streptococcus thermophiles
Oligofructose
Start: 1 day preoperative
Stop: Postoperative, day not reported
Sugawara et al. Bifidobacterium breve
Lactobacillus casei
Galactooligosaccharides
Start: 14 days preoperative
Stop: 14 days postoperative
Liu et al. Lactobacillus plantarum
Lactobacillus acidophilus
Bifidobacterium longum
Start: 6 days preoperative
Stop: 10 days postoperative
Eguchi et al. Bifidobacterium breve
Lactobacillus casei
Galactooligosaccharides
Start: 2 days preoperative
Stop: 14 days postoperative
Usami et al. Bifidobacterium breve
Lactobacillus casei
Galactooligosaccharides
Start: 14 days preoperative
Stop: 14 days postoperative
Zhang et al. Bifidobacterium longum
Lactobacillus plantarum
Enterococcus faecalis
Start: 5 days preoperative
Stop: 2 days preoperative
Okazaki et al. Bifidobacterium breve
Lactobacillus casei
Galactooligosaccharides
Start: 7 days preoperative
Stop: 10 days postoperative
Tanaka et al. Bifidobacterium breve
Lactobacillus casei
Galactooligosaccharides
Start: Preoperative, day not reported
Stop: 21 days postoperative
Tanaka et al.
(Control group)
Streptococcus faecalis Start: 1 day postoperative
Stop: 21 days postoperative