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Table 1 Univariate analysis of risk factors influencing overall and disease-free survival

From: Survival after initial lung metastasectomy for metastatic colorectal cancer in the modern chemotherapeutic era

Variable n = 59 (%) Overall survival Disease-free survival
HR [95% CI] P HR [95% CI] P
General factors
 Sex
  Female 26 (44) 1    1   
  Male 33 (56) 3.780 [1.367–13.290] 0.009 2.076 [1.018–4.480] 0.045
 Age (years old)
   ≥ 70 20 (34) 1    1   
   < 70 39 (66) 1.063 [0.417–3.042] 0.902 1.215 [0.595–2.625] 0.599
Primary colorectal cancer related factors
 Location
  Colon 34 (58) 1    1   
  Rectum 25 (42) 2.524 [0.991–6.877] 0.052 1.725 [0.854–3.483] 0.127
 Histological type/differentiation
  Well differentiated 21 (36) 1    1   
  Moderately/poorly differentiated or mucinous 38 (64) 1.757 [0.634–6.188] 0.295 1.053 [0.520–2.273] 0.889
 Preoperative serum CEA (ng/mL)
   < 5.0 23 (39) 1    1   
   ≥ 5.0 36 (61) 1.822 [0.660–6.400] 0.262 1.571 [0.751–3.586] 0.238
 T stage
  T1/T2/T3 34 (58) 1    1   
  T4 25 (42) 1.485 [0.598–3.740] 0.390 1.403 [0.690–2.823] 0.344
 N stage
  N0/N1 50 (85) 1    1   
  N2 9 (15) 2.839 [0.897–7.733] 0.073 3.496 [1.458–7.540] 0.007
 Lymphatic invasion
  Not identified 19 (32) 1    1   
  Identified 40 (68) 1.448 [0.520–5.117] 0.500 1.433 [0.670–3.410] 0.366
 Vascular invasion
  Not identified 12 (20) 1    1   
  Identified 47 (80) 3.555 [0.729–64.051] 0.135 3.412 [1.210–14.264] 0.018
 pTNM stage
  Stage 1/2 29 (49) 1.351 [0.531–3.397]   1.022 [0.506–2.065]  
  Stage 3/4 30 (51) 1   0.520 1   0.949
 Adjuvant chemotherapy
  Not performed 28 (48) 1    1   
  Performed 31 (53) 1.396 [0.558–3.769] 0.480 1.130 [0.609–2.483] 0.568
Lung metastasis related factors
 Number of tumors
  Solitary 48 (81) 1    1   
  Multiple 11 (19) 1.496 [0.482–3.928] 0.456 1.908 [0.801–4.081] 0.136
 Tumor size (mm)
   < 20 27 (46) 1    1   
   ≥ 20 32 (54) 1.985 [0.779–5.674] 0.154 1.591 [0.786–3.360] 0.199
 Tumor distribution
  Unilateral 51 (86) 1    1   
  Bilateral 8 (14) 2.376 [0.763–6.256] 0.126 2.528 [0.934–5.805] 0.066
 Preoperative serum CEA (ng/mL)
   < 5.0 36 (61) 1    1   
   ≥ 5.0 23 (39) 3.030 [1.173–7.999] 0.023 2.230 [1.103–4.508] 0.026
 Operative procedure
  Lobectomy 19 (32) 1    1   
  Wedge resection/segmentectomy 40 (68) 1.911 [0.691–6.721] 0.225 1.049 [0.509–2.320] 0.899
 DFI after colorectal cancer resection (months)
   ≥ 24 20 (34) 1    1   
   < 24 39 (66) 5.402 [1.545–34.105] 0.006 2.428 [1.105–6.096] 0.026
 Adjuvant chemotherapy
  Not performed 33 (56) 1    1   
  Performed 26 (44) 1.916 [0.772–4.974] 0.160 1.461 [0.725–2.945] 0.285
Liver metastasis related factor
 History of hepatic metastasis
  Absent 31 (53) 1    1   
  Present 28 (48) 1.616 [0.647–4.356] 0.307 1.249 [0.620–2.518] 0.530
  1. CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, CI confidence interval, DFI disease-free interval, HR, hazard ratio