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Table 1 Patient characteristics, clinical findings, laboratory and computed tomography findings

From: Postoperative pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) and portal venous gas (PVG) may indicate bowel necrosis: a 52-case study

  Total Bowel necrosis Non-bowel necrosis  
Number (N, (%)) N = 52 N = 17 (32.7) N = 35 (67.3) P value
Age 70.4 ± 5.1 69.5 ± 8.9 70.9 ± 6.2 0.79
Gender     0.74
 Male 32 (61.5) 11 21  
 Female 20 (38.5) 6 14  
Underlying disease/condition/treatment
 Inflammatory bowel disease 2 (3.8) 0 2 0.31
 Respiratory disease 7 (13.5) 2 5 0.8
 Diabetes mellitus 10 (19.2) 3 7 0.84
 α-Glucosidase inhibitor 5 (9.6) 1 4 0.52
 Cardiovascular disease 9 (17.3) 4 5 0.41
 Renal disease 4 (7.7) 2 2 0.44
 Collagen disease 7 (13.5) 2 5 0.8
 Hematological disease 3 (5.8) 0 3 0.21
 Steroid therapy 16 (30.8) 4 12 0.43
 Chemotherapy 8 (15.4) 3 5 0.75
 Postoperative state 9 (17.3) 8 1 0.0001
 Tumor-bearing 13 (25.0) 5 8 0.61
Abdominal findings
 Abdominal pain 31 (59.6) 14 (82.4) 17 (48.6) 0.019
 Peritoneal irritation signs 16 (30.8) 9 (52.9) 7 (20.0) 0.016
 Nausea/vomiting 17 (32.7) 7 (41.2) 10 (28.6) 0.36
 Abdominal distension 26 (50) 11 (64.7) 15 (42.9) 0.14
 Melena 5 (9.6) 1 (5.9) 4 (11.4) 0.52
Vital signs
 Temperature   36.9 ± 0.66 37.1 ± 0.5 0.76
 Mean blood pressure   79.6 ± 8.9 86.9 ± 7.8 0.24
 Pulse rate   94.2 ± 13.6 85.6 ± 11.6 0.34
 Respiration rate   19.3 ± 2.6 17.9 ± 1.8 0.36
Laboratory Findings
 WBC (×103/μL)   11,992 ± 2811 8654 ± 1988 0.16
 Hb (g/dL)   12.3 ± 0.97 11.8 ± 0.68 0.39
 Platelets (×103/μL)   18.9 ± 4.1 19.9 ± 2.9 0.67
 Total bilirubin (mg/dL)   1.16 ± 0.5 0.90 ± 0.35 0.39
 Sodium (mmol/L)   135.2 ± 3.2 137.4 ± 2.3 0.26
 Potassium (mmol/L)   4.36 ± 0.34 4.2 ± 0.2 0.49
 Arterial pH   7.338 ± 0.065 7.409 ± 0.049 0.81
 Base excess (mmol/L)   −0.66 ± 0.32 1.22 ± 0.38 0.41
 Bicarbonate (mmol/L)   22.39 ± 3.62 24.92 ± 2.61 0.28
 Creatinine (mg/dL)   1.7 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.3 0.0054
 CRP (mg/dL)   10.56 ± 4.01 3.15 ± 2.83 0.0038
 Serum lactate (mmol/L)   4.54 ± 2.03 1.90 ± 1.61 0.045
Evaluation of Severity
 SIRS score   1.1 ± 0.5 0.4 ± 0.3 0.036
 APACHE II score   12 ± 2.9 7.7 ± 2.1 0.022
 SOFA score   2.8 ± 0.9 1.2 ± 0.6 0.0044
Computed tomography findings
Ascites 18 (34.6) 10 (58.8) 8 (22.9) 0.011
Free Air 20 (38.5) 5 (29.4) 15 (42.9) 0.35
Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) 45 (86.5) 14 (82.3) 31 (88.6) 0.54
 linear pattern 23 (51.1) 10 (58.8) 13 (37.1)  
 bubble pattern 22 (48.9) 4 (23.5) 18 (51.4) 0.082
Portal venous gas (PVG) 20 (38.5) 9 (52.9) 11 (31.4) 0.13
 Left lobe 12 (23.1) 5 (29.4) 7 (20)  
 Right lobe or both lobes 8 (15.4) 4 (23.5) 4 (11.4) 0.71
Both PI and PVG 13 (25) 6 (35.3) 7 (20) 0.23
Deterioration in bowel wall enhancement 17 (32.7) 8 (47.1) 9 (25.7) 0.03
  1. Bubble pattern: gas bubbles in the bowel wall
  2. Linear pattern: continuous gas with a smooth margin