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Table 3 Opinions regarding placebo use, mechanisms and concerns

From: A survey on beliefs and attitudes of trainee surgeons towards placebo

Question N Responded Yes (%)
In which on the following situations have you considered placebo? (more than one option allowed) 180  
 As a diagnostic tool   64 (36)
When all other therapies have been exhausted   50 (28)
As a treatment for a non-specific symptoms   44 (24)
Instead of surgery, when using surgery was not justified   39 (22)
As a supplement to surgery   34 (19)
To calm a patient or mollify a complaining patient   25 (14)
To control pain   61 (34)
To maintain a good relationship with a patient   12 (7)
Never as a formal treatment option outside of research   71 (40)
What are your concerns regarding the use of placebo in surgery? (more than one option allowed) 176  
It involves deception   104 (59)
It endangers patient-surgeon trust   96 (55)
Because of legal problems   68 (39)
Because of possible side effects   52 (30)
It is ineffective   23 (13)
None of the above   22 (13)
In your opinion what is the mechanism behind the placebo effect? (more than one option allowed) 180  
Psychological   166 (92)
Unexplained Factors   68 (38)
The natural course of a disease   72 (40)
Conditioning   40 (22)
Physiological   36 (20)
Positive Energies   5 (3)
Other   6 (3)