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Table 4 Risk factors for amputation within 3 months in patients with open tibial fracture

From: Lower extremity soft tissue reconstruction and amputation rates in patients with open tibial fractures in Sweden during 1998–2010

   Crude   Adjusted  
   OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
Sex Men 1.0 ref   1.0 ref  
  Women 0.9 0.5-1.6 0.78 0.5 0.3-1.0 0.050
Age-group 15-60 1.0 ref   1.0 ref  
  61-70 1.4 0.6-2.9 0.45 1.6 0.6-3.5 0.27
  71-80 2.0 0.8-4.4 0.09 2.3 0.9-5.2 0.05
  ≥81 5.8 2.9-10.7 <0.001 7.2 3.3-15.2 <0.001
Flap No 1.0 ref   1.0 ref  
  Yes 2.8 1.4-5.0 0.001 3.0 1.5-5.6 0.001
Mechanism of injury Energy Low 1.0 ref   1.0 ref  
  High 1.2 0.7-1.9 0.58 1.3 0.8-2.3 0.32
Fixation method Nail 1.0 ref   1.0 ref  
  Plate 5.1 1.1-25.8 0.034 4.4 1.0-22.6 0.055
  Closed reduction 14.4 3.5-70.6 <0.001 12.1 2.9-60.3 <0.001
  External fixation 10.0 2.8-46.5 <0.001 6.6 1.8-31.3 <0.001
  Combination 6.2 2.0-27.4 0.0047 4.5 1.4-20.0 0.022
  Miscellaneous 12.9 4.6-53.8 <0.001 10.0 3.5-42.0 <0.001
  1. CI = confidence interval, ref = reference value, adjusted for age, sex, reconstructive surgery, mechanism of injury and fixation method.