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  1. Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the ampulla of Vater (AmV) is exceedingly rare with more aggressive behavior and worse prognosis than adenocarcinoma. The finding of ASC at the AmV in combination to the gastri...

    Authors: Shuo Li, Mengqing Sun, Yingxin Wei, Yunlu Feng, Xiaoyan Chang, Yan You, Ziwen Liu and Xianlin Han

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:224

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  2. Due to improvements in operative techniques and medical equipment, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has become a mainstay of thoracic surgery. Nevertheless, in multiport thoracoscopic surgery, there have b...

    Authors: Haitao Xu, Shuai Ren, Tianyu She, Jingyu Zhang, Lianguo Zhang, Teng Jia and Qingguang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:223

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common epithelial tumor of the esophagus. Upper endoscopy with multiple minimally invasive biopsies should be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Leiomyoma of esophagus is r...

    Authors: Saadat Mehrabi, Mohammad Javad Yavari Barhaghtalab, Safoora Hejazinia and Hossein Saedi

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:221

    Content type: Case report

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  4. A novel trauma workflow system called the hybrid emergency room (Hybrid ER), which combines a sliding CT scanner system with interventional radiology features (IVR-CT), was initially instituted in our emergenc...

    Authors: Daiki Wada, Koichi Hayakawa, Fukuki Saito, Kazuhisa Yoshiya, Yasushi Nakamori and Yasuyuki Kuwagata

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:219

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Despite increasing acceptance in colorectal surgery, natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) surgery for the treatment of gastric cancer is still in its infancy, especially via the transrectal approach, whi...

    Authors: Haipeng Meng, Jinchao Liu, Hui Xu, Song Wang, Yu Rong, Yanling Xu and Gang Yu

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:218

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Variation of the vertebral artery bifurcation is rare. This branching abnormality can cause unexpected vertebral artery damage and bleeding during thoracoscopic esophagectomy. There are few reports of abnormal...

    Authors: Yuta Sato, Yoshihiro Tanaka, Takeharu Imai, Yuji Hatanaka, Naoki Okumura, Nobuhisa Matsuhashi, Takao Takahashi and Kazuhiro Yoshida

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:217

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare cause of lumbar spinal stenosis. While conservative therapy is applicable for most of cases, surgical intervention is necessary for severe ones. This is the first time we ...

    Authors: Xiao Han, Derong Xu, ZhiNan Ren, Xin Chen, Zheng Li and Shugang Li

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:215

    Content type: Case report

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  8. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Kiichi Sugimoto, Kazuhiro Sakamoto, Yuki Ii, Kota Amemiya, Hiroyuki Sugo, Tomoaki Ito, Shinya Munakata, Makoto Takahashi, Yutaka Kojima, Yuichi Tomiki, Koichi Sato, Akio Saiura and Seiji Kawasaki

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:214

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Surgery 2021 21:188

  9. We retrospectively reviewed and consecutively collected the clinical data of distal gastric cancer patients who received surgical treatment, and we discuss the safety and feasibility of double layered end-to-e...

    Authors: XinSheng Zhang, WeiBin Zhang, MengLang Yuan, XiaoMeng Shi, HongYi Chen, Zhen Feng, ZiHao Chen, DunBo Liu, EnJun Yan and ShuangYi Ren

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:213

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Acute colon perforation is a pediatric surgical emergency. We aimed to analyze the different etiologies and clinical characteristics of acute non-traumatic colon perforation beyond the neonatal period and to i...

    Authors: Sarah Siyin Tan, Kai Wang, Wenbo Pang, Dongyang Wu, Chunhui Peng, Zengmeng Wang, Dan Zhang and Yajun Chen

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:212

    Content type: Research

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  11. Postoperative peritoneal adhesion (PPA) is regarded as fibrous bands connecting both injured abdominal wall and organs or adjacent tissues. It is associated with T helper (Th)1 and Th2 differentiation. However...

    Authors: Lili Yang, Ziyu Lian, Bin Zhang, Zhengjun Li, Li Zeng, Wenlin Li and Yaoyao Bian

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:211

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Little was know about the association between the CHA2DS2-VASc score and postoperative outcomes. Our purpose is to evaluate the effects of CHA2DS2-VASc score on the perioperative outcomes in patients with atri...

    Authors: Li-Chin Sung, Chih-Chung Liu, Chao-Shun Lin, Chun-Chieh Yeh, Yih-Giun Cherng, Ta-Liang Chen and Chien-Chang Liao

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:209

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Burst abdomen (BA) is a severe complication after abdominal surgery, which often requires urgent repair. However, evidence on surgical techniques to prevent burst abdomen recurrence (BAR) is scarce.

    Authors: Matthias Mehdorn, Linda Groos, Woubet Kassahun, Boris Jansen-Winkeln, Ines Gockel and Yusef Moulla

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:208

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Obesity can affect postoperative outcomes of gastrectomy. Visceral fat area is superior to body mass index in predicting postoperative complications. However, visceral fat area measurement is time-consuming an...

    Authors: Shinichiro Shiomi, Tetsuro Toriumi, Koichi Yagi, Raito Asaoka, Yasuhiro Okumura, Kotaro Wakamatsu, Susumu Aikou, Hiroharu Yamashita, Sachiyo Nomura and Yasuyuki Seto

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:207

    Content type: Research

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  15. Although conventional laparoscopy has gradually accepted as a surgical treatment for ovarian cancer, reducing the port numbers of laparoscopy still has great challenge for larger ovarian tumors. Thus, this stu...

    Authors: Xiaoying Wang and Yan Li

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:205

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Postoperative hypoparathyroidism is the main reason for outpatient follow-up and long-term oral calcium and calcitriol treatment. Our study investigated the influencing factors and powerful predictors of short...

    Authors: Duntao Su, Fada Xia, Wanze Huang, Zhejia Zhang, Ning Bai, Di Wang, Xin Liao and Xinying Li

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:204

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Robotic distal gastrectomy (RDG) has been increasingly used for the treatment of gastric cancer (GC). However, whether RDG has a clinical advantage over laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) is yet to be deter...

    Authors: Taro Isobe, Naotaka Murakami, Taizan Minami, Yuya Tanaka, Hideaki Kaku, Yuki Umetani, Junya Kizaki, Keishiro Aoyagi, Fumihiko Fujita and Yoshito Akagi

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:203

    Content type: Research

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  18. Anastomosis-related complications are common after the radical resection of colon cancer. Among such complications, severe stenosis or completely occluded anastomosis (COA) are uncommon in clinical practice, a...

    Authors: Junnan Gu, Shenghe Deng, Yinghao Cao, Fuwei Mao, Hang Li, Huili Li, Jiliang Wang, Ke Wu and Kailin Cai

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:201

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Uveitic glaucoma commonly leads to a more intense optic nerve damage than other types of glaucoma, causing glaucomatous optic nerves and visual field defects. Anterior uveitis is the most commonly associated r...

    Authors: Adonis El Salloukh, Abdus Samad Ansari, Alexander Chiu and Divya Mathews

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:200

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Our objective was to develop a new, minimally invasive surgical technique for the resolution of craniovertebral junction pathologies, which can eliminate the complications of the previous methods, like liquor-...

    Authors: Árpád Viola, István Kozma and Dávid Süvegh

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:199

    Content type: Technical advance

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  21. Persistent pancreatic leakage (PL) due to disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome (DPDS) is associated with severe morbidity and mortality and it usually treated with internal drainage. However, in cases without...

    Authors: Kinji Furuya, Tatsuya Oda, Osamu Shimomura, Yusuke Ozawa, Kenichi Iwasaki, Yoshihiro Miyazaki, Manami Doi, Koichi Ogawa, Yohei Owada, Yusuke Ohara, Kazuhiro Takahashi, Yoshimasa Akashi, Katsuji Hisakura, Tsuyoshi Enomoto, Jaejeong Kim and Shinji Hashimoto

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:198

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Surgical wound infection contributes to prolonged recovery time after pilonidal sinus excision. As a standard procedure after surgery, we recommend our patients to perform water irrigations in the intergluteal...

    Authors: Arnaud Dupuis, Niki Christou, Dorota Teterycz, Alexandre Balaphas, Joan Robert-Yap, Guillaume Zufferey, Karel Skala, Mariam Alketbi, Emilie Liot, Nicolas C. Buchs, Bruno Roche and Frederic Ris

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:197

    Content type: Research

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  23. During the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic, the quality of surgical education experiences sudden major restrictions. Students’ presence in the operating theater and on wards is reduced to a bare minimum and face-t...

    Authors: Sophia M. Schmitz, Sandra Schipper, Martin Lemos, Patrick H. Alizai, Elda Kokott, Jonathan F. Brozat, Ulf P. Neumann and Tom F. Ulmer

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:196

    Content type: Research

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  24. The aim of this multicenter cohort study was to compare the clinical courses between open and laparoscopic Petersen’s hernia (PH) reduction.

    Authors: Jae-Seok Min, Kyung Won Seo, Sang-Ho Jeong, Ki Hyun Kim, Ji-ho Park, Ki Young Yoon, Tae-Han Kim, Eun-Jung Jung, Young-tae Ju, Chi-Young Jeong, Ju-Yeon Kim and Young-Joon Lee

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:195

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Pelvic sepsis after surgery for rectal cancer is a severe complication, mostly originating from anastomotic leakage. Complex salvage surgery, during which an omentoplasty is often used for filling of the pelvi...

    Authors: Sebastian Sparenberg, Sarah Sharabiany, Gijsbert D. Musters, Brenda M. Castano Borrero, Roel Hompes, Oren Lapid and Pieter J. Tanis

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:194

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  26. Free flaps are widely used in maxillofacial reconstruction; however, this approach was not feasible in the current case. It was not possible because the free flap method requires microvascular anastomosis expe...

    Authors: J. F. Sheng, P. Tang, L. Y. Ma, Y. C. Cai, J. Hu, T. Xu, C. L. Liao, C. Deng and C. Li

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:193

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  27. The application of short femoral stems is partially restricted in revision surgery. This study will demonstrate the therapeutic effect and unsuitable situation for short stem revision.

    Authors: Zeming Liu, Bo Liu, Bingshi Zhang, Wenhui Ma, Tao Wu, Jia Huo, Sikai Liu and Yongtai Han

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:192

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) is a rare condition observed in patients with some underlying medical or surgical conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient wi...

    Authors: Yuki Inagaki, Kohei Matsuo, Yoritaka Nakano and Tadashi Kondo

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:191

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  29. Fluorescence-guided visualization is a recently proposed technology in colorectal surgery. Possible uses include evaluating perfusion, navigating lymph nodes and searching for hepatic metastases and peritoneal...

    Authors: Gian Luca Baiocchi, Gianluca Guercioni, Nereo Vettoretto, Stefano Scabini, Paolo Millo, Andrea Muratore, Marco Clementi, Giuseppe Sica, Paolo Delrio, Graziano Longo, Gabriele Anania, Vittoria Barbieri, Pietro Amodio, Carlo Di Marco, Gianandrea Baldazzi, Gianluca Garulli…

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:190

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Free osteocutaneous fibula flap (FFF) is currently considered the best option for segmental mandibular reconstruction; however, there are only a few reports comparing secondary with primary reconstructions usi...

    Authors: Sho Yamakawa and Kenji Hayashida

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:189

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Expansion of the indication for liver resection and new regimens for systemic chemotherapy have improved postoperative outcomes for synchronous colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). However, such cases can still...

    Authors: Kiichi Sugimoto, Kazuhiro Sakamoto, Yuki Ii, Kota Amemiya, Hiroyuki Sugo, Tomoaki Ito, Shinya Munakata, Makoto Takahashi, Yutaka Kojima, Yuichi Tomiki, Koichi Sato, Akio Saiura and Seiji Kawasaki

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:188

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Surgery 2021 21:214

  32. In light of the extensive application of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients and the recently investigated failure of SLNB after lumpectomy, it has become impor...

    Authors: Shishuai Wen, Yiran Liang, Xiaoli Kong, Baofeng Liu, Tingting Ma, Yeqing Zhou, Liyu Jiang, Xiaoyan Li and Qifeng Yang

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:187

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Despite the unequivocal role of progressive mobilization in post-surgical patient management, its specific effects and timing, particularly after abdominal surgery, remain debated. This study’s aim was to exam...

    Authors: Monika Fagevik Olsén, Suada Becovic and Elizabeth Dean

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:185

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) is indicated for patients with acute cholecystitis (AC) who are not indicated for urgent surgery, but external tubes reduce quality of life (QOL) while wa...

    Authors: Fumihiro Kawano, Ryuji Yoshioka, Yu Gyoda, Hirofumi Ichida, Tomoya Mizuno, Shigeto Ishii, Toshio Fujisawa, Hiroshi Imamura, Yoshihiro Mise, Hiroyuki Isayama and Akio Saiura

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:184

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Misdiagnosis or failure to intraoperatively detect occult hernia in the inguinal region can lead to the recurrence of postoperative hernia and the appearance of local pain symptoms, which affect the patient’s ...

    Authors: Jun He, Ying-jie Xu, Peng Sun, Jue Wang and Cheng-guang Yang

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:182

    Content type: Research article

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  36. COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the Italian National Health Care system at many different levels, causing a complete reorganization of surgical wards. In this context, our study retrospectively analysed the man...

    Authors: Matteo Barabino, Gaetano Piccolo, Arianna Trizzino, Veronica Fedele, Carlo Ferrari, Vincenzo Nicastro, Andrea Pisani Ceretti, Enrico De Nicola, Nicolò Maria Mariani, Marco Giovenzana, Giovanna Scifo, Massimiliano Mazza, Ruggero Vercelli, Roberto Santambrogio, Carmelo Luigiano and Enrico Opocher

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:180

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Postoperative rectourethral fistula (RUF) in patients with congenital anorectal malformation (ARM) remains a challenge for paediatric surgeons, among them persistent fistula is the most common. Various techniq...

    Authors: Xinjie Huang, Yajun Chen, Wenbo Pang, Chunhui Peng and Dongyang Wu

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:179

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The inflammation indexes in blood routine play an essential role in evaluating the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, but the effect on early recurrence has not been clarified. The study aime...

    Authors: YiFeng Wu, ChaoYong Tu and ChuXiao Shao

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:178

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and postoperative pain (POP) are most commonly experienced in the early hours after surgery. Many studies have reported high rates of PONV and POP, and have identified ...

    Authors: Reem M. Elsaid, Ashraqat S. Namrouti, Ahmad M. Samara, Wael Sadaqa and Sa’ed H. Zyoud

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:177

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. The prognostic values of inflammation-based markers in well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, diagnosed according to the new 2017 World Health Organization classification, have remained uncle...

    Authors: Takayuki Miura, Hideo Ohtsuka, Takeshi Aoki, Shuichi Aoki, Tatsuo Hata, Tatsuyuki Takadate, Shimpei Maeda, Kyohei Ariake, Kei Kawaguchi, Kunihiro Masuda, Masaharu Ishida, Masamichi Mizuma, Kei Nakagawa, Takanori Morikawa, Fumiyoshi Fujishima, Takashi Kamei…

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:176

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Lymph node metastasis (LNM) plays a vital role in the determination of clinical outcomes in patients with gastric neuroendocrine tumor (G-NET). Preoperative identification of LNM is helpful for intraoperative ...

    Authors: Xianghui Li, Lihua Shao, Xiaofeng Lu, Zhengyang Yang, Shichao Ai, Feng Sun, Meng Wang, Wenxian Guan and Song Liu

    Citation: BMC Surgery 2021 21:174

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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