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Table 3 Complications to pancreatic surgery

From: Pancreatic surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic 2020–2021: an observational cohort study from a third level referral center

  Before lockdown  
  2017/2018 2018/2019 2019/2020 Total Lockdown p value
Number of operations 254 253 232 739 242  
Clavien–Dindo (%)
1 33 (13.0) 21 (8.3) 19 (8.2) 73 (9.9) 22 (9.1) 0.803
2       
3a 14 (5.5) 23 (9.1) 30 (12.2) 67 (9.1) 28 (11.6) 0.261
3b 33 (13.0) 22 (8.7) 31 (13.4) 86 (11.6) 28 (11.6) 1.000
4a 2 (0.8) 0 0 2 (0.3) 2 (0.8)  
4b 3 (1.2) 0 0 3 (0.4) 2 (0.8)  
5 5 (2.0) 4 (1.6) 3 (1.3) 12 (1.6) 5 (2.1) 0.582
Surgical complications 83 (32.7) 67 (26.5) 82 (35.4) 232 (31.4) 69 (28.5) 0.423
Wound dehiscence or infection 33 (13.0) 21 (8.3) 19 (8.2) 73 (9.9) 22 (9.1) 0.803
Pancreatic fistula 25 (9.8) 20 (7.9) 31 (13.4) 76 (10.3) 29 (12.0) 0.473
Pancreaticoduodenectomy
Grade B 16 (6.3) 6 (2.4) 11 (4.7) 33 (4.5) 9 (3.7) 0.717
Grade C 2 (0.8)    2 (0.3) 2 (0.8)  
Left pancreatectomy
Grade B 7 (2.8) 14 (5.5) 19 (8.2) 40 (5.4) 18 (7.4) 0.271
Grade C       
Bile fistula 11 (4.3) 12 (4.7) 15 (6.5) 38 (5.1) 11 (4.6) 0.865
Intraabdominal abscess 8 (3.1) 9 (3.6) 10 (4.3) 27 (3.7) 10 (4.1) 0.701
Hemorrhage 3 (1.2) 3 (1.2) 2 (0.9) 8 (1.1) 5 (2.0)  
Gastric bleeding 1 (0.3) 0 2 (0.9) 3 (0.4) 1 (0.4)  
Gastric or intestinal infarction 1 (0.3) 0 2 (0.9) 3 (0.4) 0  
Liver infarction 1 (0.3) 2 (0.8) 1 (0.4) 3 (0.4) 1 (0.4)   
  1. Fistulas from pancreatico-jejunostomi and hepatico-jejunostomy treated with percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography assisted drainage under general anesthesia are classified as Clavien–Dindo 3b