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Table 2 Clinicopathological and preoperative functional comparisons between robotic and transanal or laparoscopic approach

From: Robotic surgery contributes to the preservation of bowel and urinary function after total mesorectal excision: comparisons with transanal and conventional laparoscopic surgery

Variables Robot taTME P value* Laparoscopy P value**
N = 35 N = 15 N = 14
Age 65 (37–75) 70 (38–81) 0.03 66 (34–77) 0.65
Gender (male), n (%) 28 (80.0) 14 (93.3) 0.40 8 (57.1) 0.15
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.0 (18.7–31.4) 23.3 (19.1–28.9) 0.97 21.4 (18.6–28.8) 0.29
Smoking, n (%) 9 (25.7) 5 (33.3) 0.73 8 (57.1) 0.05
Hypertension, n (%) 13 (61.9) 8 (38.1) 0.35 4 (28.6) 0.74
Diabetes, n (%) 4 (11.4) 5 (33.3) 0.10 2 (14.3) 1.00
ASA ≥ 3, n (%) 2 (5.7) 0 (0) 1.00 1 (7.1) 1.00
Tumor size (mm) 34 (0–80) 38 (0–75) 0.96 37 (0–57) 0.85
Distance from AV to tumor (mm) 55 (25–80) 50 (30–60) 0.17 57 (35–80) 0.29
cT3, n (%) 22 (62.9) 7 (46.7) 0.35 10 (71.4) 0.74
cN positive, n (%) 14 (40.0) 2 (13.3) 0.09 7 (50.0) 0.54
Preoperative treatment, n (%) 21 (60.0) 7 (46.7) 0.53 8 (57.1) 1.00
Hand sewn, n (%) 12 (34.2) 15 (100)  < 0.01 5 (35.7) 1.00
Anastomotic height from AV (mm) 40 (20–60) 25 (20–40)  < 0.01 50 (20–60) 0.52
Lateral lymph node dissection, n (%) 21 (60.0) 7 (46.7) 0.53 4 (71.4) 0.52
Operation time (min) 465 (299–631) 317 (170–396)  < 0.01 430 (185–639) 0.39
Blood loss (ml) 50 (0–440) 60 (5–230) 0.33 107 (0–3137) 0.91
Clavien-Dindo ≥ 3, n (%) 1 (2.9) 2 (13.3) 0.21 3 (21.4) 0.06
Anastomotic leakage, n (%) 1 (2.9) 2 (13.3) 0.21 2 (14.3) 0.19
pStage 0-I, n (%) 23 (65.7) 12 (80.0) 0.50 4 (28.6) 0.02
Distal margin (mm) 15 (5–30) 20 (10–35) 0.02 20 (5–30) 0.19
Radial margin ≤ 1 mm, n (%) 0 (0) 1 (6.7) 0.30 2 (14.3) 0.07
Wexner score 1 (0–16) 2 (0–4) 0.55 1 (0–18) 0.55
Wexner ≥ 10, n (%) 1 (2.9) 0 (0) 1.00 1 (7.1) 0.49
LARS score 11 (0–39) 15 (0–38) 0.71 11 (0–41) 0.22
major LARS, n (%) 3 (8.6) 2 (13.3) 0.62 4 (28.6) 0.09
mFIQL score 0 (0–57.1) 0 (0–23.8) 0.88 0 (0–90.4) 0.90
mFIQL ≥ 50, n (%) 2 (5.7) 0 (0) 1.00 1 (7.1) 1.00
IPSS 5 (0–27) 7 (3–29) 0.06 5.5 (1–21) 0.66
Severe IPSS, n (%) 1 (2.9) 2 (13.3) 0.21 1 (7.1) 0.49
Observational periods (month) 22 (9–47) 43 (7–54)  < 0.01 33 (7–52) 0.01
Permanent stoma at 2 years, n (%) 1 (2.9) 6 (40.0)  < 0.01 1 (7.1) 0.97
  1. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, AV anal verge, taTME transanal total mesorectal excision, LARS low anterior resection syndrome, mFIQL modified fecal incontinence quality of life, IPSS international prostate symptom score
  2. Median (Range)
  3. *Robotic vs Transanal; **Robotic vs Laparoscopic; Log-rank test