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Table 2 Percentages of hernia repair procedures according to recorded procedures in total compared by age group separately by sexes

From: Inguinal hernia repair in inpatient children: a nationwide analysis of German administrative data

Type of procedure Sex Age group Mean (95% CI) Omnibus test Groupwise comparison
Open hernia repair M  < 1 98.8% (98.4–99.1) Χ2 = 20.508
df = 3
P = 0.0001
 < 1 vs. 1–4: P = 0.5781  < 1 vs. 5–9: P = 0.0727
1–4 98.8% (98.4–99.2)  < 1 vs. 10–14: P = 0.0001 1–4 vs. 5–9: P = 0.025
5–9 98.1% (97.4–98.7) 1–4 vs. 10–14: P < 0.0001
10–14 97% (96.2–97.6) 5–9 vs. 10–14: P = 0.0214
F  < 1 97.7% (97.2–98.2) Χ2 = 23.199
df = 3
P < 0.0001
 < 1 vs. 1–4: P = 0.001  < 1 vs.: 5–9: P < 0.0001
1–4 91.4% (88.8–93.8)  < 1 vs. 10–14: P < 0.0001 1–4 vs. 5–9: P = 0.288
5–9 88.8% (85–92.4) 1–4 vs. 10–14: P = 0.045
10–14 86.3% (82.9–89.4) 5–9 vs. 10–14: P = 0.288
Laparoscopic hernia repair M  < 1 1.2% (0.9–1.6) Χ2 = 21.114
df = 3
P < 0.0001
 < 1 vs. 1–4: P = 0.589  < 1 vs.: 5–9: P = 0.074
1–4 1.2% (0.8–1.6)  < 1 vs. 10–14: P < 0.0001 1–4 vs. 5–9: P = 0.027
5–9 1.9% (1.3–2.6) 1–4 vs. 10–14: P < 0.0001
10–14 2.9% (2.4–3.6) 5–9 vs. 10–14: P = 0.014
F  < 1 2.3% (1.8–2.8) Χ2 = 23.199
df = 3
P < 0.0001
 < 1 vs. 1–4: P = 0.001  < 1 vs.: 5–9: P < 0.0001
1–4 8.6% (6.2–11.2)  < 1 vs. 10–14: P < 0.0001 1–4 vs. 5–9: P = 0.288
5–9 11.2% (7.6–15) 1–4 vs. 10–14: P = 0.045
10–14 13.7% (10.6–17.1) 5–9 vs. 10–14: P = 0.288
Open herniorraphy M  < 1 78.5% (77.9–79) Χ2 = 32.247
df = 3
P < 0.0001
 < 1 vs. 1–4: P = 0.0051
1–4 81% (80–82.2)  < 1 vs. 5–9: P = 0.0254
5–9 80.3% (78.7–82) 1–4 vs. 5–9: 0.4867
10–14 67.9% (65–70.4) Other comparisons: P < 0.0001
F  < 1 69.9% (69–70.9) Χ2 = 28.269
df = 3
P < 0.0001
 < 1 vs. 1–4: P = 0.84
1–4 69.8% (68.7–70.9)  < 1 vs. 5–9: P = 0.84
5–9 69.6% (67.8–71.3) 1–4 vs. 5–9: P = 0.84
10–14 50.4% (47.2–53.8) Other comparisons: P < 0.0001
Open hernioplasty M  < 1 21.1% (20.5–21.7) Χ2 = 32.246
df = 3
P < 0.0001
 < 1 vs. 1–4: P = 0.0071
1–4 18.6% (17.3–19.7)  < 1 vs. 5–9: P = 0.0147
5–9 19% (17.3–20.7) 1–4 vs. 5–9: 0.7215
10–14 30.2% (27.8–33) Other comparisons: P < 0.0001
F  < 1 29.9% (28.8–30.8) Χ2 = 27.765
df = 3
P < 0.0001
 < 1 vs. 1–4: P = 0.79
1–4 30.1% (28.8–31.1)  < 1 vs. 5–9: P = 0.79
5–9 29.7% (27.8–31.7) 1–4 vs. 5–9: 0.74
10–14 48% (43.7–52) Other comparisons: P < 0.0001
Recurrent hernia M  < 1 0.6% (0.5–0.7) Χ2 = 24.698
df = 3
P < 0.0001
 < 1 vs. 1–4: P = 0.022  < 1 vs. 5–9: P < 0.0001
1–4 1.6% (1.3–1.9)  < 1 vs. 10–14: P < 0.0001 1–4 vs. 5–9: P = 0.022
5–9 2.5% (2–3) 1–4 vs. 10–14: P = 0.001
10–14 3.1% (2.4–3.7) 5–9 vs. 10–14: P = 0.225
F  < 1 0.3% (0.2–0.4) Χ2 = 37.525
df = 3
P < 0.0001
1–4 vs. 5–9: P = 0.0865
1–4 1% (0.8–1.2) 5–9 vs. 10–14: P = 0.0001
5–9 1.3% (1.1–1.6) Other comparisons: P < 0.0001
10–14 2.6% (2–3.2)
  1. Confidence intervals were obtained via bias-corrected, accelerated bootstrap with 10,000 repetitions. The different age groups among the types of hernias were compared by van der Waerden’s test as the omnibus-test followed by groupwise comparisons via the Conover-Iman test with correction for multiple comparisons using the method of Benjamini-Hochberg
  2. M male, F female, CI confidence interval