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Table 2 Factors associated with in-hospital mortality among patients who underwent major abdominal surgery at MNRH during the study period

From: Elevated serum lactate as a predictor of outcomes in patients following major abdominal surgery at a tertiary hospital in Uganda

Characteristic (n = 246) Univariate Multivariate
cOR 95% CI p-value aOR 95%CI p-value
Age       
  < 18 years 1      
  ≥ 18 years 0.30 0.21–0.43  < 0.001 0.24 0.06–0.90 0.034
Gender       
 Male 1      
 Female 0.23 0.15–0.34  < 0.001 0.19 0.06–0.64 0.007
Type of surgery       
 Elective 1      
 Emergency 2.67 1.98–3.60  < 0.001 2.27 0.08–2.33 0.331
ASA status       
 I 1      
 II 2.98 1.09–3.87 0.020 1.20 0.45–3.22 0.710
 III 3.68 1.76–5.65 0.001 2.06 0.74–4.96 0.078
 IV 6.13 2.89–9.97  < 0.001 2.39 0.13–4.18 0.462
Duration between diagnosis & surgery for emergencies (days)       
 Within 1 day 1      
 Longer than a day 1.77 1.59–2.90 0.043 1.45 1.13–1.86 0.003
Duration of surgery (hours)       
  ≤ 1.5 1      
  > 1.5 2.63 1.75–4.00  < 0.001 3.17 1.01–9.98 0.049
Pre-surgery treatment       
 Yes 1      
 No 2.09 1.54–4.03  < 0.001 1.78 0.29–11.11 0.531
Intraoperative treatment (litres)       
  ≤ 1 1      
  > 1 0.30 0.19–0.47  < 0.001 1.51 0.12–2.69 0.753
Comorbidities       
 No 1      
 Yes 1.15 1.10–1.19  < 0.001 1.23 1.11–1.36  < 0.001
Organs involved       
 One 1      
 More than one organ 1.34 1.20–1.50  < 0.001 1.06 0.71–1.25 0.675
Serum lactate       
 Normal (≤ 2.0 mmol/L) 1      
 High (> 2.0 mmol/L) 3.79 2.09–6.84  < 0.001 5.20 1.51–17.92 0.009
  1. The bold was indicative of the statistically significant p values of different variables
  2. Mortality n = 34, 13.8%