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Table 1 Studies and patients characteristics

From: Indications and outcomes of enterovesical and colovesical fistulas: systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of prevalence

Author Year of publication Years of enrollment Quality of evidence (OCEBM) Country No. of surgically treated patients Mean age Male:female Etiology Type of fistula  
Pollard 1987 1971–1986 4 UK 61 61 36:25 DD 71%; CRC 12.1%; BC 1.5%; CD 6%; PR 4.5%; Appendicitis 3%; Trauma 1.5% CVF 100%  
McNamara 1990 1952–1986 2b Canada 61 34.4 38:23 CD 100% EVF 85.2%; RVF 4.9%; CVF 9.8%  
Holmes 1992 1988–1991 4 UK 11 69 8:3 CRC 63.6%; BC 36.4% CVF 100%  
McBeath 1994 1980–1991 2b USA 76 62.1 51:25 DD 59%; Malignancy 9%; PR 7%; Radioneoplastic 8%; CD 9%;
Appendicitis 3%; other 6%
  
Munoz 1998 1980–1995 4 USA 33 62 56:6 Benign disease 27%; Malignancy 73%   
Vasilevsky 1998 1975–1995 4 Canada 23   8:15 DD 100% CVF 100%  
Yamamoto 2000 1970–1997 4 Japan 25 39 17:8 CD 100% EVF 80%; CVF 20%  
Walker 2002 1991–1995 2b UK 19 68 8:11 DD 73.6%; CRC 15.7%; Trauma 5.2%; CD 5.2% CVF 100%  
Menenakos 2003 1993–2002 2b Greece 15 68.1 10:5 DD 100% CVF 100%  
Najjar 2004 1992–2004 4 USA 12 63.9 12:0 DD 75%; CRC 16.7%; BC 8.3% CVF 100%  
Kavanagh 2005 1990–2000 4 Ireland 25 63.5 13:12 DD 52%; CRC 16%; BC 4%; CD 12%; PR 12%; IA 4% CVF 76.7%; RVF 13.3%; EVF 10%  
Laurent 2005 1992–2003 4 Belgium 16 60 10:6 DD 100% CVF 100%  
Ferguson 2008 1993–2005 4 USA 74 54 48:26 DD 70.3%; CD 29.7%   
Melchior 2009 1982–2007 4 Germany 49 69.5 42:7 DD 100% CVF 100%  
Lynn 2012 2003–2010 2b USA 72 60 50:22 DD 65%; Malignancy 15%; CD 18%; Trauma 2% CVF 85%; RVF 15%  
Niebling 2013 1998–2010 4 Netherlands 31 61.1 19:12 DD 100% CVF 100%  
Maciel 2014 2009–2013 2b USA 75 62.3 39:36 DD 100% CVF 100%  
Salgado-Nesme 2016 2005–2011 2b Mexico 24 56.5 22:2 DD 100% CVF 100%  
Taxonera 2016 NR 2b Spain 79 33 60:19 CD 100% EVF 66.9%; CVF 31.9%  
Badic 2017 2000–2014 2b France 28 68 20:8 DD 100% CVF 100%  
El-Haddad 2018 2012–2017 4 Egypt 40 58 36:4 DD 100% CVF 100%  
Nevo 2019 2007–2017 4 Israel 17 48 (median) 15:2 DD 59%; CD 41% EVF 41%; CVF 59%  
  1. OCEBM Oxford Center of Evidence Based Medicine, CVF colovesical fistula, RVF rectovesical fistula, EVF enterovesical fistula, DD Diverticular disease, CD Crohn disease, CRC colo-rectal cancer, BC bladder cancer, PC prostate cancer, PR post radiation, IA iatrogenic