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Table 1 Participants’ demographic and specialty

From: A haptic laparoscopic trainer based on affine velocity analysis: engineering and preliminary results

Group General information Speciality Experience
Total number (Male:Female) Mean age (range) Paediatric Gynaecology Urology Digestive Visceral Orthopaedic General
Experts 17 (13:4) 41.5 (62–30) 1 1 8 4 2 1 0 \(\ge\) 100 interventionsa
Intermediates 12 (11 :1) 28 (32–25) 0 0 10 0 2 0 0 5-20 interventionsa
Inexperienced interns 28 (20 :8) 25.3 (40–23) 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 Weak experienceb
Novices 20 (7:13) 31.5 (53–18) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No experiencec
  1. aAs main operator
  2. bNever performed any laparoscopic operation but had some basic open surgery experience like knot tying and suturing
  3. cStudents with no medical education or surgical skills