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Table 4 Summary of associations between patients’ and operations’ characteristics with performing the SSI preventive measures before skin closure (n = 281)

From: Determinants of surgeons’ adherence to preventive intraoperative measures of surgical site infection in Gaza Strip hospitals: a multi-centre cross-sectional study

 Giving 80% FiO2Irrigation of incision with povidone-iodineChange of and/or double glovesChange of instruments
YesNopYesNopYesNopYesNop
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
Gender
 Male58 (43.9)74 (56.1)< 0.00160 (45.5)72 (54.5)0.0761 (46.2)71 (53.8)0.0074 (3.0)128 (97.0)0.19
 Female98 (65.8)51 (34.2) 51 (34.2)98 (65.8) 45 (30.2)104 (69.8) 1 (0.7)148 (99.3) 
Age-group
 18–2539 (53.4)34 (46.6)0.8335 (47.9)38 (52.1)0.1426 (35.6)47 (64.4)0.313 (4.1)70 (95.9)0.21
 26–64111 (56.6)85 (43.4) 70 (35.7)126 (64.3) 73 (37.2)123 (62.8) 2 (1.0)194 (99.0) 
 65–806 (50.0)6 (50.0) 6 (50.0)6 (50.0) 7 (58.3)5 (41.7) 012 (100.0) 
ASA classification
 I115 (62.8)68 (37.2) 71 (38.8)112 (61.2) 56 (30.6)127 (69.4) 4 (2.2)179 (97.8) 
 II35 (56.5)27 (43.5)< 0.00125 (40.3)37 (59.7)0.7529 (46.8)33 (53.2)0.0011 (1.6)61 (98.4)0.84
 III4 (16.0)21 (84.0) 9 (36.0)16 (64.0) 17 (68.0)8 (32.0) 025 (100.0) 
 IV2 (18.2)9 (81.8) 6 (54.5)5 (45.5) 4 (36.4)7 (63.6) 011 (100.0) 
Type of operation
 Abdominal exploration4 (33.3)8 (66.7) 10 (83.3)2 (16.7) 10 (83.3)2 (16.7) 1 (8.3)11 (91.7) 
 Open appendectomy14 (30.4)32 (69.6) 32 (69.6)14 (30.4) 23 (50.0)23 (50.0) 3 (6.5)43 (93.5) 
 Lap. cholecystectomy50 (84.7)9 (15.3) 22 (37.3)37 (62.7) 14 (23.7)45 (76.3) 059 (100.0) 
 Anorectal surgeries20 (90.9)2 (9.1) 6 (27.3)16 (72.7) 5 (22.7)17 (77.3) 022 (100.0) 
 Open hernia repair20 (52.6)18 (47.4)< 0.00116 (42.1)22 (57.9)< 0.00120 (52.6)18 (47.4)0.0011 (2.6)37 (97.4)0.14
 Thyroidectomy20 (90.9)2 (9.1) 4 (18.2)18 (81.8) 6 (27.3)16 (72.7) 022 (100.0) 
 Mastectomy13 (59.1)9 (40.9) 8 (36.4)14 (63.6) 8 (36.4)14 (63.6) 022 (100.0) 
 Lymph node excision11 (73.3)4 (26.7) 2 (13.3)13 (86.7) 3 (20.0)12 (80.0) 015 (100.0) 
 Vascular surgeries4 (8.9)41 (91.1) 11 (24.4)34 (75.6) 17 (37.8)28 (62.2) 045 (100.0) 
Duration of operation
 ≤ 30 min33 (49.3)34 (50.7) 21 (31.3)46 (68.7) 18 (26.9)49 (73.1) 067 (100.0) 
 31 to 60 min61 (46.9)69 (53.1) 61 (46.9)69 (53.1) 55 (42.3)75 (57.7) 4 (3.1)126 (96.9) 
 61 to 90 min32 (82.1)7 (17.9)0.00112 (30.8)27 (69.2)0.1714 (35.9)25 (64.1)0.28039 (100.0)0.50
 91 to 120 min28 (68.3)13 (31.7) 16 (39.0)25 (61.0) 17 (41.5)24 (58.5) 1 (2.4)40 (97.6) 
 > 120 min2 (50.0)2 (50.0) 1 (25.0)3 (75.0) 2 (50.0)2 (50.0) 04 (100.0) 
Urgency
 Elective131 (63.0)77 (37.0)< 0.00160 (28.8)148 (71.2)< 0.00165 (31.2)143 (68.8)< 0.0011 (0.5)207 (99.5)0.017
 Emergency25 (34.2)48 (65.8) 51 (69.9)22 (30.1) 41 (56.2)32 (43.8) 4 (5.5)69 (94.5) 
Inraoperative contamination
 Clean70 (48.6)74 (51.4) 43 (29.9)101 (70.1) 48 (33.3)96 (66.7) 1 (0.7)143 (99.3) 
 Clean-contaminated57 (67.9)27 (32.1)0.00234 (40.5)50 (59.5)< 0.00129 (34.5)55 (65.5)0.0133 (3.6)81 (96.4)0.39
 Contaminated24 (66.7)12 (33.3) 21 (58.3)15 (41.7) 17 (47.2)19 (52.8) 1 (2.8)35 (97.2) 
 Dirty5 (29.4)12 (70.6) 13 (76.5)4 (23.5) 12 (70.6)5 (29.4) 017 (100.0) 
Hospital
 X62 (55.9)49 (44.1)< 0.00119 (17.1)92 (82.9)< 0.00127 (24.3)84 (75.7)< 0.0015 (4.5)106 (95.5)0.020
 Y33 (30.3)76 (69.7) 83 (76.1)26 (23.9) 79 (72.5)30 (27.5) 0109 (100.0) 
 Z61 (100.0)0 9 (14.8)52 (85.2) 061 (100.0) 061 (100.0) 
Time of operation
 December 201616 (19.3)67 (80.7)< 0.00156 (67.5)27 (32.5)< 0.00143 (51.8)40 (48.2)< 0.0014 (4.8)79 (95.2)0.040
 January 201754 (62.1)33 (37.9) 32 (36.8)55 (63.2) 36 (41.4)51 (58.6) 087 (100.0) 
 February 201786 (77.5)25 (22.5) 23 (20.7)88 (79.3) 27 (24.3)84 (75.7) 1 (0.9)110 (99.1) 
  1. n number of patients tested, ASA American Society of Anaesthesiologists, FiO2 fraction of inspired oxygen
  2. Note: p-values in bold are statistically significant.