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Table 3 Summary of associations between patients’ and operations’ characteristics with performing the SSI preventive measures before making the surgical incision (n = 281)

From: Determinants of surgeons’ adherence to preventive intraoperative measures of surgical site infection in Gaza Strip hospitals: a multi-centre cross-sectional study

 Surgical antibiotic prophylaxisHair removalSkin preparation by alcohol-based antiseptic solutions based on CHGHand preparationMaintaining normothermia
YesNopYesNopYesNopBy soap and water, n (%)By alcohol-based rub, n (%)pYesNop
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
Gender
 Male125 (94.7)7 (5.3)0.2066 (50.0)66 (50.0)< 0.001111 (84.1)21 (15.9)0.7567 (50.8)65 (49.2)0.9125 (18.9)107 (81.1)0.038
 Female146 (98.0)3 (2.0) 9 (6.0)140 (94.0) 123 (82.6)26 (17.4) 74 (49.7)75 (50.3) 45 (30.2)104 (69.8) 
Age-group
 18–2570 (95.9)3 (4.1)0.7819 (26.0)54 (74.0)0.9862 (84.9)11 (15.1)0.9132 (43.8)41 (56.2)0.12325 (34.2)48 (65.8)0.10
 26–64189 (96.4)7 (3.6) 53 (27.0)143 (73.0) 162 (82.7)34 (17.3) 100 (51.0)96 (49.0) 42 (21.4)154 (78.6) 
 65–8012 (100.0)0 3 (25.0)9 (75.0) 10 (83.3)2 (16.7) 9 (75.0)3 (25.0) 3 (25.0)9 (75.0) 
ASA classification
 I176 (96.2)7 (3.8) 48 (26.2)135 (73.8) 146 (79.8)37 (20.2) 81 (44.3)102 (55.7) 53 (29.0)130 (71.0) 
 II59 (95.2)3 (4.8)0.6522 (35.5)40 (64.5)0.0753 (85.5)9 (14.5)0.0730 (48.4)32 (51.6)< 0.00114 (22.6)48 (77.4)0.07
 III25 (100.0)0 5 (20.0)20 (80.0) 24 (96.0)1 (4.0) 20 (80.0)5 (20.0) 2 (8.0)23 (92.0) 
 IV11 (100.0)0 011 (100.0) 11 (100.0)0 10 (90.9)1 (9.1) 1 (9.1)10 (90.9) 
Type of operation
 Abdominal exploration12 (100.0)0 3 (25.0)9 (75.0) 12 (100.0)0 2 (16.7)10 (83.3) 4 (33.3)8 (66.7) 
 Open appendectomy46 (100.0)0 21 (45.7)25 (54.3) 41 (89.1)5 (10.9) 14 (30.4)32 (69.6) 11 (23.9)35 (76.1) 
 Lap. cholecystectomy58 (98.3)1 (1.7) 9 (15.3)50 (84.7) 42 (71.2)17 (28.8) 30 (50.8)29 (49.2) 15 (25.4)44 (74.6) 
 Anorectal surgeries21 (95.5)1 (4.5) 4 (18.2)18 (81.8) 16 (72.7)6 (27.3) 12 (54.5)10 (45.5) 8 (36.4)14 (63.6) 
 Open hernia repair36 (94.7)2 (5.3)< 0.00123 (60.5)15 (39.5)< 0.00129 (76.3)9 (23.7)0.00517 (44.7)21 (55.3)< 0.0014 (10.5)34 (89.5)0.002
 Thyroidectomy21 (95.5)1 (4.5) 022 (100.0) 18 (81.8)4 (18.2) 10 (45.5)12 (54.5) 8 (36.4)14 (63.6) 
 Mastectomy22 (100.0)0 022 (100.0) 18 (81.8)4 (18.2) 6 (27.3)16 (72.7) 10 (45.5)12 (54.5) 
 Lymph node excision10 (66.7)5 (33.3) 015 (100.0) 13 (86.7)2 (13.3) 5 (33.3)10 (66.7) 7 (46.7)8 (53.3) 
 Vascular surgeries45 (100.0)0 15 (33.3)30 (66.7) 45 (100.0)0 45 (100.0)0 3 (6.7)42 (93.3) 
Duration of operation
 ≤ 30 min62 (92.5)5 (7.5) 11 (16.4)56 (83.6) 61 (91.0)6 (9.0) 30 (44.8)37 (55.2) 25 (37.3)42 (62.7) 
 31 to 60 min126 (96.9)4 (3.1)0.3146 (35.4)84 (64.6)0.007115 (88.5)15 (11.5)0.00163 (48.5)67 (51.5)0.4125 (19.2)105 (80.8)0.042
 61 to 90 min38 (97.4)1 (2.6) 11 (28.2)28 (71.8) 26 (66.7)13 (33.3) 24 (61.5)15 (38.5) 8 (20.5)31 (79.5) 
 91 to 120 min41 (100.0)0 5 (12.2)36 (87.8) 29 (70.7)12 (29.3) 21 (51.2)20 (48.8) 12 (29.3)29 (70.7) 
 > 120 min4 (100.0)0 2 (50.0)2 (50.0) 3 (75.0)1 (25.0) 3 (75.0)1 (25.0) 04 (100.0) 
Urgency
 Elective199 (95.7)9 (4.3)0.4649 (23.6)159 (76.4)0.06166 (79.8)42 (20.2)0.01114 (54.8)94 (45.2)0.0153 (25.5)155 (74.5)0.76
 Emergency72 (98.6)1 (1.4) 26 (35.6)47 (64.4) 68 (93.2)5 (6.8) 27 (37.0)46 (63.0) 17 (23.3)56 (76.7) 
Intraoperative contamination
 Clean137 (95.1)7 (4.9)0.4539 (27.1)105 (72.9)0.98125 (86.8)19 (13.2)0.00878 (54.2)66 (45.8)0.00232 (22.2)112 (77.8)0.55
 Clean-contaminated82 (97.6)2 (2.4) 23 (27.4)61 (72.6) 61 (72.6)23 (27.4) 43 (51.2)41 (48.8) 21 (25.0)63 (75.0) 
 Contaminated36 (100.0)0 9 (25.0)27 (75.0) 31 (86.1)5 (13.9) 19 (52.8)17 (47.2) 12 (33.3)24 (66.7) 
 Dirty16 (94.1)1 (5.9) 4 (23.5)13 (76.5) 17 (100.0)0 1 (5.9)16 (94.1) 5 (29.4)12 (70.6) 
Hospital
 X110 (99.1)1 (0.9)0.1227 (24.3)84 (75.7)< 0.00165 (58.6)46 (41.4)< 0.001105 (94.6)6 (5.4)< 0.0014 (3.6)107 (96.4)< 0.001
 Y104 (95.4)5 (4.6) 46 (42.2)63 (57.8) 109 (100.0)0 31 (28.4)78 (71.6) 11 (10.1)98 (89.9) 
 Z57 (93.4)4 (6.6) 2 (3.3)59 (96.7) 60 (98.4)1 (1.6) 5 (8.2)56 (91.8) 55 (90.2)6(9.8) 
Time of operation
 December 201679 (95.2)4 (4.8)0.1439 (47.0)44 (53.0)< 0.00182 (98.8)1 (1.2)< 0.00132 (38.6)51 (61.4)0.0013 (3.6)80 (96.4)< 0.001
 January 201782 (94.3)5 (5.7) 24 (27.6)63 (72.4) 75 (86.2)12 (13.8) 58 (66.7)29 (33.3) 16 (18.4)71 (81.6) 
 February 2017110 (99.1)1 (0.9) 12 (10.8)99 (89.2) 77 (69.4)34 (30.6) 51 (45.9)60 (54.1) 51 (45.9)60 (54.1) 
  1. n number of patients tested, CHG chlorhexidine gluconate, ASA American Society of Anaesthesiologists
  2. Note: p-values in bold are statistically significant