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Table 2 Demographics and outcomes prior to and following propensity score matching

From: Pre-operative beta-blocker therapy does not affect short-term mortality after esophageal resection for cancer

  Before matching After matching
BB(−) BB(+) p BB(−) BB(+) p
(n = 953) (n = 513) (n = 513) (n = 513)
Patient characteristics       
Sex    0.12    0.613
 Male 756 (79.3%) 425 (82.8%)   418 (81.5%) 425 (82.8%)  
 Female 197 (20.7%) 88 (17.2%)   95 (18.5%) 88 (17.2%)  
Age in years, mean (SD) 63.5 (9.8) 67.8 (8.2)  < 0.001 66.9 (8.3) 67.8 (8.2) 0.085
CCI     < 0.001    0.468
 <  = 4p 525 (55.1%) 158 (30.8%)   182 (35.5%) 158 (30.8%)  
 5–6p 379 (39.8%) 271 (52.8%)   284 (55.4%) 271 (52.8%)  
 > 7p 49 (5.1%) 84 (16.4%)   47 (9.2%) 84 (16.4%)  
ASA-classification     < 0.001    1.00
 ASA-1 432 (45.3%) 89 (17.3%)   89 (17.3%) 89 (17.3%)  
 ASA-2 431 (45.2%) 304 (59.3%)   335 (65.3%) 304 (59.3%)  
 ASA-3 89 (9.3%) 118 (23.0%)   88 (17.2%) 118 (23.0%)  
 ASA-4 1 (0.1%) 2 (0.4%)   1 (0.1%) 2 (0.4%)  
Histological classification    0.032    0.506
 Adenocarcinoma 737 (77.3%) 422 (82.3%)   413 (80.5%) 422 (82.3%)  
 Squamous cell carcinoma 216 (22.7%) 91 (17.7%)   100 (19.5%) 91 (17.7%)  
T-classification    0.20    1.00
 Tx 81 (8.5%) 54 (10.5%)   49 (9.6%) 54 (10.5%)  
 T0 0 (0.0%) 2 (0.4%)   0 (0.0%) 2 (0.4%)  
 T1 58 (6.1%) 40 (7.8%)   32 (6.2%) 40 (7.8%)  
 T2 262 (27.5%) 140 (27.3%)   138 (26.9%) 140 (27.3%)  
 T3 514 (53.9%) 259 (50.5%)   276 (53.8%) 259 (50.5%)  
 T4 38 (4.0%) 18 (3.5%)   18 (3.5%) 18 (3.5%)  
N-classification    0.94    1.00
 NX 25 (2.6%) 15 (2.9%)   15 (2.9%) 15 (2.9%)  
 N0 524 (55.0%) 270 (52.6%)   272 (53.0%) 270 (52.6%)  
 N1 330 (34.6%) 187 (36.5%)   187 (36.5%) 187 (36.5%)  
 N2 63 (6.6%) 35 (6.8%)   35 (6.8%) 35 (6.8%)  
 N3 11 (1.2%) 6 (1.2%)   4 (0.8%) 6 (1.2%)  
M-classification    0.64    1.00
 MX 22 (2.3%) 16 (3.1%)   15 (2.9%) 16 (3.1%)  
 M0 911 (95.6%) 487 (94.9%)   485 (94.5%) 487 (94.9%)  
 M1 20 (2.1%) 10 (1.9%)   13 (2.5%) 10 (1.9%)  
Thoracic surgical approach    0.58    1.00
 Right-sided thoracotomy 731 (76.7%) 398 (77.6%)   406 (79.1%) 398 (77.6%)  
 Thoracoscopy 152 (15.9%) 69 (13.5%)   62 (12.1%) 69 (13.5%)  
 Other 70 (7.4%) 46 (9.0%)   45 (8.5%) 46 (9.0%)  
Neoadjuvant treatment    0.050    1.00
 Yes 636 (66.7%) 316 (61.6%)   328 (63.9%) 316 (61.6%)  
 No 313 (32.8%) 195 (38.0%)   184 (35.9%) 195 (38.0%)  
 Missing 4 (0.4%) 2 (0.4%)   1 (0.2%) 2 (0.4%)  
Outcome—90 day Mortality 48 (5.0%) 34 (6.6%) 0.25 31 (6.0%) 34 (6.6%) 0.798
  1. BB β-blockade, CCI Charlson’s Comorbidity Index, ASA American society of anesthesiologists