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Table 1 Main patient characteristics

From: Incidence and risk factors for trocar-site incisional hernia detected by clinical and ultrasound examination: a prospective observational study

N 76
Age years (SD) 58.47 (16.58)
 ≤ 70 n (%) 54 (71.1)
 > 70 22 (28.9)
Gender n (%)
 Male 32 (41.1)
 Female 44 (57.9)
DM n (%)
 Yes 10 (13.2)
 Not 66 (86.8)
COPD n (%)
 Yes 4 (5.4)
 Not 70 (94.6)
Smokers n (%)
 Yes 19 (27.1)
 Not 51 (72.9)
BMI kg/m2 (SD) 27.54 (4.25)
 ≥ 30 n (%) 19 (27.5)
 < 30 50 (72.5)
Weight kg, (SD) 74.51 (11.76)
Height cm (SD) 163.82 (8.31)
Previous umbilical hernia n (%)
 Yes 7 (9.3)
 Not 68 (90.7)
Surgery type n (%)
 Cholecystectomy 60 (78.9)
 Sigmoidectomy 8 (10.5)
 Nissen fundoplication 6 (7.9)
 Suprarrenalectomy 1 (1.3)
 Appendectomy 1 (1.3)
Laparoscopic approach n (%)
 Hasson 76 (100)
 Veress 0
Operative time minutes (SD) 86.89 (44.13)
Surgeon’s experience n (%)
 Junior 9 (12)
 Senior 66 (88)
Diagnose n (%)
 Cholelithiasis 39 (51.3)
 Acute cholecystitis 16 (21.1)
 Colon cancer 9 (11.8)
 Hiatal hernia 5 (6.6)
 Chronic cholecystitis 4 (5.3)
 Porcelain Gallbladder 1 (1.3)
 Adrenal adenoma 1 (1.3)
 Acute appendicitis 1 (1.3)
Malignancy n (%)
 Benign 67 (88.2)
 Malign 9 (11.8)
Surgical wound infection classification n (%)
 Clean 8 (10.5)
 Clean–contaminated 44 (57.9)
 Contaminated 24 (31.6)
Emergency n (%)
 Elective 51 (67.1)
 Urgent 25 (32.9)
TSIHc n (%) 21 (27.6)
 5 mm/TSIH 1 (4.76)
 10 mm/TSIH 20 (95.23)
TSIHu n (%) 18 (23.7)
 5 mm/HLA TSIH 1 (5.5)
 10 mm/HLA TSIH 17 (94.45)
 Symptomatic 8 (47.1)
 Asymptomatic 10 (52.9)
Content n (%)
 Omentum 13 (70.6)
 Small bowel 3 (17.6)
 Both 2 (11.8)
Transverse diameter mm (SD) 13.39 (7.55)
Cranio caudal diameter mm (SD) 12.37 (8.52)
Follow up months (SD) 33.66 (4.36)
  1. DM diabetes mellitus, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, BMI body mass index, TSIHc trocar site incision hernia clinically diagnosed, TSIHu trocar site incision hernia diagnosed radiologically