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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Clinical features of patients with hepatic portal venous gas

  Total Ischemia (Group 1) Non-ischemia (Group 2) Pd
n = 30 n = 12 n = 18
Age (years) 72 (53–92) 74 (55–90) 72 (53–92) 0.816e
Male, n (%) 19 (63) 6 (50) 13 (72) 0.216
Body mass index, kg/m2 20.9 (15.2–29.0) 22.0 (17.1–28.2) 20.6 (15.2–29.0) 0.421e
Principal complaintsa     
 Abdominal pain, n (%) 23 (77) 9 (75) 14 (78) 0.860
 Peritoneal irritation sign, n (%) 7 (23) 7 (58) 0 (0) < 0.001
 Nausea, n (%) 10 (33) 2 (17) 8 (44) 0.114
 Impaired consciousness, n (%) 4 (13) 2 (17) 2 (11) 0.661
 Gastrointestinal bleeding, n (%) 4 (13) 0 (0) 4 (22) 0.079
 Abdominal fullness, n (%) 3 (10) 0 (0) 3 (17) 0.136
 Fever, n (%) 2 (6.7) 1 (8.3) 1 (5.6) 0.765
 History of abdominal surgery, n (%) 9 (30) 3 (25) 6 (33) 0.626
 Hypertension, n (%) 18 (60) 6 (50) 12 (67) 0.361
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 12 (40) 4 (33) 8 (44) 0.543
 Use of alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, n (%) 6 (20) 1 (8.3) 5 (28) 0.192
 Use of psychotropic agent, n (%) 8 (27) 3 (25) 5 (28) 0.866
 Use of anticoagulant agent, n (%) 10 (33) 2 (17) 8 (44) 0.114
 Use of steroid, n (%) 3 (10) 2 (17) 1 (5.6) 0.320
Laboratory findings     
 pHb 7.42 (6.98–7.61) 7.38 (6.98–7.57) 7.42 (7.36–7.61) 0.114e
 Base excess, mmol/Lb 0.9 (− 27.6–6.6) -4.4 (-27.6–2.5) 2.3 (-5.2–6.6) 0.005e
 Lactate, mmol/Lb 2.1 (0.8–13.8) 5.2 (1.2–13.8) 1.8 (0.8–5.1) 0.003e
 White blood cell, /μL 9990 (2230–45,090) 12,720 (2,230–45,090) 9330 (4930–26,100) 0.290e
 Neutrophil lymphocyte ratioc 9.3 (1.3–29) 21 (7.7–29) 6.6 (1.3–18) 0.013e
 Lactate dehydrogenase, IU/L 207 (137–619) 207 (147–619) 207 (137–586) 0.757e
 Creatine kinase, IU/L 68 (20–595) 71 (20–595) 60 (26–135) 0.338e
 C-reactive protein, mg/dL 4.0 (0–48) 9.7 (1.2–48) 2.8 (0–20) 0.016e
Computed tomography findings     
 Intestinal pneumatosis, n (%) 15 (50) 9 (75) 6 (33) 0.025
 Band like pneumatosis [16], n (%) 11 (37) 8 (67) 3 (17) 0.005
 Bubble like pneumatosis [16], n (%) 4 (13) 1 (8.3) 3 (17) 0.511
 Ascites, n (%) 14 (47) 5 (42) 9 (50) 0.654
 Free air, n (%) 2 (6.7) 2 (17) 0 (0) 0.073
Distribution of HPVG [19]     
 Bilobar, n (%) 18 (60) 6 (50) 12 (67) 0.361
 Limited to left liver, n (%) 12 (40) 6 (50) 6 (33) 0.361
Underlying disease as cause of HPVG     
 Bowel ischemia 12 (40) 12 (100) 0 (0) < 0.001
 Enteritis 10 (33) 0 (0) 10 (56) 0.002
 Bowel distention 6 (20) 0 (0) 6 (33) 0.025
 Pneumothorax 1 (3.3) 0 (0) 1 (5.6) 0.406
 Unknown 1 (3.3) 0 (0) 1 (5.6) 0.406
  1. Data are presented as median (range) unless otherwise indicated
  2. Italic values indicate items represented statistical significance
  3. HPVG hepatic portal venous gas
  4. aOverlap of principal complaints was allowed
  5. bData of 4 patients are missing
  6. cData of 15 patients are missing
  7. dχ2 test unless otherwise indicated
  8. eWilcoxon rank-sum test