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Table 5 Univariate analysis of perioperative risk factors of postoperative ND in patients with type A aortic dissection

From: Effect of different types of cerebral perfusion for acute type A aortic dissection undergoing aortic arch procedure, unilateral versus bilateral

Variable ND (n = 101) Non-ND (n = 220) p
Preoperative variables
 Age (year, \(\overline{x}\) ± s) 56.70 ± 9.91 53.83 ± 9.75 0.422
 Male (n, %) 73 (73.7%) 155 (69.8%) 0.475
 Education level (year, \(\overline{x}\) ± s) 10.61 ± 5.30 11.23 ± 4.85 0.651
 Tobacco use (n, %) 52 (52.5%) 108 (48.6%) 0.521
 Alcohol use (n, %) 20 (20.2%) 37 (16.7%) 0.444
 Barrier of hearing or language (n, %) 3 (3.0%) 7 (3.2%) 1.000
 Hypertension (n, %) 87 (87.9%) 168 (75.7%) 0.012
 Diabetes mellitus (n, %) 23 (23.2%) 36 (16.2%) 0.134
 COPD (n, %) 4 (4.0%) 6 (2.7%) 0.505
 Cerebrovascular disease history (n, %) 26 (26.3%) 34 (15.3%) 0.020
 Peripheral arterial disease (n, %) 7 (7.1%) 11 (5.0%) 0.447
 Renal dysfunction (n, %) 9 (9.1%) 8 (3.6%) 0.043
 LVEF < 0.4 (n, %) 5 (5.1%) 9 (4.1%) 0.684
 Preoperative neurological dysfunction (n, %) 10 (9.9%) 6 (2.7%) 0.005
 Preoperative intubation (n, %) 9 (8.9%) 7 (3.2%) 0.024
 Preoperative cardiac arrhythmia (n, %) 8 (7.9%) 11 (5%) 0.273
Intraoperative variables
 Concomitant procedures (n, %)
  Bentall 29 (28.7%) 43 (19.5%) 0.358
  CABG 15 (14.9%) 12 (5.5%)  
  Bentall + CABG 10 (9.9%) 10 (4.5%)  
 CPB duration (min, \(\overline{x}\) ± s) 259.93 ± 69.94 234.48 ± 49.24 0.009
 Aortic cross-clamping duration (min, \(\overline{x}\) ± s) 157.96 ± 37.17 153.25 ± 33.11 0.418
 Circulatory arrest time (min, \(\overline{x}\) ± s) 27.06 ± 6.05 25.33 ± 6.59 0.112
 Type of cerebral perfusion (u-ACP, %) 50 (49.5%) 74 (33.6%) 0.007
 Nasopharyngeal temperature (℃, \(\overline{x}\) ± s) 26.11 ± 1.49 26.60 ± 1.38 0.039
 Blood transfusion > 1 L (n, %) 25 (24.8%) 34 (15.5%) 0.046
Postoperative variables
 Postoperative drainage volume within 24 h (> 1 L) (n, %) 15 (14.9%) 16 (7.3%) 0.033
 AKI (n, %) 16 (15.8%) 25 (11.4%) 0.264
 Hemoglobin (g/L, \(\overline{x}\) ± s) 93.25 ± 10.39 100.50 ± 9.35 0.180
 Cardiac arrhythmia (n, %) 21 (50.0%) 36 (19.7%) 0.335
  1. p < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant