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Table 4 Means and differences of experienced strain by the different professional groups, for each type of surgery

From: Episodes of strain experienced in the operating room: impact of the type of surgery, the profession and the phase of the operation

Professional groups Surgical specialtya Nb Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Differences across phasesc
M SD M SD M SD M SD
Surgeon Ped 24 0.04 0.20 0.38 0.58 0.46 0.66 0.04 0.20 2 > 1, 2 > 4, 3 > 1, 3 > 4
  Gyn 23 0.22 0.42 0.30 0.47 0.30 0.47 0.04 0.21 2 > 4, 3 > 4
  Gen 22 0.14 0.35 0.27 0.46 0.50 0.67 0.00 0.00 2 > 4, 3 > 4
  Tra 23 0.30 0.47 0.52 0.59 0.35 0.49 0.09 0.29 2 > 4
  Vas 23 0.17 0.39 0.26 0.45 0.26 0.45 0.13 0.34  
  All types 115 0.17 0.38 0.35 0.51 0.37 0.55 0.06 0.24  
Resident Ped 22 0.00 0.00 0.59 0.50 0.45 0.67 0.18 0.39 2 > 1, 2 > 4, 3 > 1, 4 > 1
  Gyn 29 0.00 0.00 0.38 0.73 0.14 0.35 0.07 0.26 2 > 1, 2 > 4, 3 > 1
  Gen 20 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.31 0.30 0.47 0.10 0.31 3 > 1
  Tra 37 0.11 0.31 0.32 0.58 0.65 0.54 0.05 0.23 2 > 4, 3 > 1, 3 > 2, 3 > 4
  Vas 12 0.08 0.29 0.25 0.62 0.42 0.51 0.08 0.29 3 > 4
  All types 120 0.04 0.20 0.34 0.59 0.41 0.54 0.09 0.29  
Student Ped 14 0.07 0.27 0.14 0.36 0.07 0.27 0.14 0.36  
  Gyn 15 0.00 0.00 0.40 0.51 0.33 0.62 0.13 0.35 2 > 1
  Gen 10 0.20 0.42 0.10 0.32 0.70 0.67 0.40 0.52 3 > 2
  Tra 14 0.21 0.43 0.14 0.36 0.29 0.61 0.00 0.00  
  Vas 0          
  All types 53 0.11 0.32 0.21 0.41 0.32 0.58 0.15 0.36  
Scrub tech Ped 25 0.04 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.20 0.00 0.00  
  Gyn 25 0.12 0.33 0.08 0.28 0.08 0.28 0.00 0.00  
  Gen 37 0.03 0.16 0.16 0.44 0.30 0.52 0.05 0.23 3 > 1, 3 > 4
  Tra 23 0.09 0.29 0.09 0.29 0.09 0.29 0.00 0.00  
  Vas 26 0.04 0.20 0.08 0.27 0.04 0.20 0.04 0.20  
  All types 136 0.09 0.31 0.09 0.31 0.13 0.35 0.02 0.15  
Circulator Ped 26 0.08 0.27 0.15 0.37 0.12 0.43 0.08 0.27  
  Gyn 33 0.15 0.36 0.42 0.50 0.12 0.42 0.12 0.33 2 > 1, 2 > 3, 2 > 4
  Gen 27 0.07 0.27 0.07 0.27 0.11 0.32 0.04 0.19  
  Tra 31 0.10 0.30 0.19 0.40 0.29 0.46 0.10 0.30 3 > 4
  Vas 26 0.04 0.20 0.04 0.20 0.12 0.33 0.08 0.27  
  All types 143 0.19 0.39 0.19 0.39 0.15 0.40 0.08 0.28  
Anesthesiologist Ped 29 0.52 0.51 0.03 0.19 0.14 0.35 0.21 0.41 1 > 2, 1 > 3, 1 > 4
  Gyn 20 0.10 0.31 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.22 0.00 0.00  
  Gen 27 0.33 0.55 0.11 0.32 0.19 0.40 0.15 0.36  
  Tra 29 0.10 0.31 0.10 0.31 0.21 0.41 0.14 0.35  
  Vas 21 0.38 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.19 0.51 0.10 0.30 1 > 2, 1 > 4
  All types 126 0.16 0.39 0.06 0.23 0.16 0.39 0.13 0.33  
All professional groups and surgery types 693 0.13 0.34 0.20 0.43 0.24 0.47 0.08 0.27  
Differences across professional groups (independently of surgery type)d   Surg > Res
Surg > Scrub
Surg > Circul
Anesth > Surg
Anesth > Res
Anesth > Stud
Anesth > Scrub
Anesth < Circul
Surg > Stud
Surg > Scrub
Surg > Circul
Surg > Anesth
Res > Scrub
Res > Circul
Res > Anesth
Stu > Anesth
Circul > Scrub
Circul > Anesth
Surg > Scrub
Surg > Circul
Surg > Anesth
Res > Scrub
Res > Circul
Res > Anesth
Stud > Scrub
Stud > Circul
Stud > Anesth
Res > Scrub
Stud > Surg
Stud > Scrub
Anesth > Scrub
 
  1. aPed = pediatric, Gyn = gynecology, Gen = general surgery, Tra = trauma/emergency, Vas = vascular
  2. bN = number of participants
  3. cStatistically significant differences across phases, identified based on LSD post hoc test of GLM model; 1 = phase 1 (before incision), 2 = phase 2 (first third of the operation), 3 = phase 3 (middle third of the operation, 4 = phase 4 (last third of the operation); > means more strain in one phase compared to another phase of the operation
  4. dResults based on LSD post hoc tests of a univariate ANOVA; Surg = surgeon, Res = resident, Stud = student, Scrub = scrub technician, Circul = circulating nurse