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Table 5 Tumor characteristics and surgical outcomes in Low and High PNI groups

From: Onodera’s prognostic nutritional index is a strong prognostic indicator for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after initial hepatectomy, especially patients with preserved liver function

  Low PNI
(PNI < 37: n = 17)
High PNI
(PNI ≥ 37: n = 172)
p value
PNI median 33.6 (26.0–36.9) 45.9 (37.3–60.0)  
Tumor size (cm) 4.7 (1.1–15.0) 4.0 (0.5–24.0) n.s
Multiple tumor 7 (41%) 42 (24%) n.s
AFP (ng/ml) 62 (2–60,105) 11 (1–253,875) 0.05
DCP (mAU/ml) 1094 (14–85,330) 92 (1–286,400) n.s
BCLC stage    n.s
 0 0 (0%) 17 (10%)  
 A 13 (76%) 108 (63%)  
 B 3 (18%) 35 (20%)  
 C 1 (6%) 12 (7%)  
Within Milan criteria 9 (53%) 98 (57%) n.s
Tumor differentiation    
 Well 2 (13%) 40 (28%) n.s
 Moderately 10 (62%) 80 (56%)  
 Poorly 4 (25%) 22 (16%)  
Vascular invasion    
 vp ( +) 9 (56%) 55 (38%) n.s
 vv ( +) 1 (6%) 11 (8%) n.s
Operation time (minutes) 336 (159–526) 335 (127–983) n.s
Blood loss (ml) 1711 (520–10,382) 1080 (0–36,000) n.s
 ≥ 2 sectionectomy 3 (18%) 54 (31%) n.s
Complications (C-D ≥ IIIa) 5 (29%) 33 (20%) n.s
Mortality 2 (12%) 8 (5%) n.s
PT-INR on POD5 1.20 (0.98–1.71) 1.12 (0.92–1.52) 0.03
Total bilirubin on POD5 (mg/dl) 1.5 (0.5–11.2) 0.9 (0.3–8.3) 0.012
  1. Differences were considered significant at p < 0.05, shown as italic values
  2. AFP alpha fetoprotein, DCP des-γ-carboxyprothrombin, BCLC stage Barcelona clinic liver cancer stage, C–D Clavien–Dindo, POD postoperative day, PT-INR prothrombin time-international normalized ratio, vp ( +) portal vein invasion including microvascular invasion, vv ( +) hepatic vein invasion including microvascular invasion
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