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Table 2 Uni- and multivariate analyses of variables potentially associated with the use of surgery as the primary treatment

From: Odontoid fractures: impact of age and comorbidities on surgical decision making

Variable Primary conservative treatment
N (%)
Primary surgery
N (%)
ORa (univariate) OR (multivariate)
Sex Female 129 (86.0) 21 (14.0)
  Male 137 (73.7) 49 (26.3) 2.20 (1.26–3.93, p = 0.006) 1.44 (0.71–2.95, p = 0.311)
Age Mean (SDb) 78.3 (16.1) 71.0 (11.4) 0.97 (0.96–0.99, p = 0.001) 1.00 (0.98–1.02, p = 0.904)
Functional status Dependent 110 (95.7) 5 (4.3)
  Independent 155 (70.5) 65 (29.5) 9.23 (3.95–27.01, p < 0.001) 5.86 (2.15–19.08, p = 0.001)
ASAc score ASA score of 1–2 77 (63.6) 44 (36.4)
  ASA score of 3–4 189 (87.9) 26 (12.1) 0.24 (0.14–0.42, p < 0.001) 0.30 (0.13–0.65, p = 0.003)
Odontoid fracture type Type II 136 (68.0) 64 (32.0)
  Type III 130 (95.6) 6 (4.4) 0.10 (0.04–0.22, p < 0.001) 0.08 (0.03–0.19, p < 0.001)
Odontoid translation None-Mild 225 (85.2) 39 (14.8)
  Majord 38 (55.1) 31 (44.9) 4.71 (2.63–8.47, p < 0.001) 5.59 (2.70–11.99, p < 0.001)
  1. aOR Odds ratio
  2. bSD Standard deviation
  3. cASA American Society of Anesthesiologists
  4. dMajor odontoid translation - ≥5 mm anterior or ≥ 3 mm posterior
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