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Table 3 Comparison of the dietary intakes and the percent of individuals with a dietary intake below the recommendations at the 6th and 12th months post-Bariatric Surgery

From: Dietary macro- and micro-nutrients intake adequacy at 6th and 12th month post-bariatric surgery

Variables References a Post-operation b
(n = 58)
pvalue % of inadequacy e
Vitamins 6 month 12 month   6 month 12 month
Biotin (B7) μg/d 25–30 7.1 (29) 5.8 (30) 0.04 c 100 98.2
Cobalamin (B12) μg/d 2.0 1.8 (3.8) 1.3(3.9) 0.001 c 54.4 77.2
Folate (B9) μg/d 320–330 121(484) 102(496) 0.046 c 93 96.5
Niacin (B3) mg/d 11–12 11.3 (36) 6.9 (30) 0.001 c 47.4 71.9
Pantothenic acid (B5) mg/d 5 1.7 (4.3) 1.1 (4.5) 0.001 c 100 100
Pyridoxine (B6) mg/d 1–1.4 0.9 ± 0.5 0.5 ± 0.4 < 0.001d 64.9 99.9
Riboflavin (B2) mg/d 0.9–1.0 0.63 (2.5) 0.52 (2.7) 0.033 c 77.2 78.9
Thiamin (B1) mg/d 0.9–1.0 0.54 (1.6) 0.44 (1.4) 0.010 c 86 91.2
Vitamin A μg/d 625–630 185 ± 144 110 ± 90 0.001d 99.2 100
Vitamin C mg/d 56–75 61.8 (193) 16.7 (110) < 0.001c 50.4 99.9
Vitamin D μg/d 10 0.60 (2.6) 0.08 (1.8) < 0.001c 100 100
Vitamin E mg/d 12 4.0 ± 3.8 4.6 ± 4.6 0.061d 100 86
Vitamin K μg/d 75–120 21 (158) 18 (123) 0.04 c 100 100
Minerals
 Calcium (Ca) mg/d 800–1100 293 (985) 171 (799) 0.001 c 93 98.2
 Copper (Cu) μg/d 685–700 537(1737) 356 (1621) 0.002 c 68.4 76.8
 Iron (Fe) mg/d 6.0–8.1 5.2 (12) 4.6 (11) 0.014 c 68.4 80.7
 Magnesium (Mg) mg/d 255–340 115 (320) 89 (339) 0.013 c 98.2 98.2
 Manganese (Mn) mg/d 1.6–2.2 0.88 (3.1) 0.91 (4.2) 0.974 c 96.5 91.2
 Phosphorus (P) mg/d 580–1055 573 (1313) 441 (1088) 0.003 c 50 71.4
 Potassium (K) g/d 4.7 1.3 ± 0.6 0.9 ± 0.5 < 0.001d 100 100
 Zinc (Zn) mg/d 6.8–9.4 3.9 (7.4) 3.2 (12.3) 0.009 c 99.9 99.9
  1. aEAR (An Estimated Average Requirement) is the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirements of half of the healthy individuals in a group. EARs have not been established for vitamin K, pantothenic acid, biotin, manganese, and potassium, in this case AI (adequate intake) has been set. The cut point is adjusted for aged between 18 and 65 year; μg/d: microgram per day; mg/d: milligram per day
  2. bData are presented as median (range) or mean ± SD according to normal and non-normal distribution respectively
  3. cP value derived from Wilcoxon test for variables do not follow a normal distribution
  4. dP-value derived from paired t-test for normally distributed variables
  5. eThe percent of individuals who had inadequate intake
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