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Table 6 Mean (SD) performance outcomes per group on Task 3

From: Assessment of validity evidence for the RobotiX robot assisted surgery simulator on advanced suturing tasks

Task 3: Vaginal cuff closure Robotic experience Laparoscopic experience Novices p-values
Movements n = 15 n = 26 n = 29 R vs N L vs N R vs L
 Path length left 3813 (1508) 6862 (3261) 5544 (2397) 0.015 0.091 < 0.001
 Path length right 4784 (1851) 5941 (2965) 5377 (2937) 0.482 0.482 0.133
 Movements left 344 (127) 494 (212) 438 (164) 0.060 0.279 0.018
 Movements right 386 (156) 501 (229) 450 (182) 0.258 0.367 0.065
 Entrance and exit points 28 (4) 32 (7) 31 (5) 0.105 0.291 0.013
 Distance scope and tissue 94 (20) 116 (10) 120 (1) < 0.001 0.056 0.001
Safety
 Instrument collisions 9 (11) 32 (32) 24 (19) 0.001 0.280 0.002
 Times out of view 32 (34) 16 (11) 10 (16) 0.030 0.148 0.088
 Unnecessary piercing 10.8 (8.4) 14.4 (11.1) 13.1 (10.1) 0.460 0.647 0.284
 Suture breakage 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.2) 0.0 (0.2) 0.479 0.939 0.455
Task specific
 Precise needle passages 10.3 (3.0) 12.0 (3.9) 12.4 (3.0) 0.032 0.661 0.153
 Needle passages 14.1 (1.8) 16.1 (3.3) 15.3 (2.5) 0.105 0.291 0.013
 Total time 423 (180) 580 (250) 573 (210) 0.024 0.916 0.040
  1. Data in this table represents mean performance scores and standard deviation. R Robotic experienced. L Laparoscopic experienced. N Novices. P-values were calculated using independent t-test. Values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant (displayed in bold)