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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Comparisons of perventricular device closure, conventional surgical repair, and transcatheter device closure in patients with perimembranous ventricular septal defects: a network meta-analysis

Study Region Design Study quality* Anatomy (percentage of pmVSD, %) Manufacturer of device Device size (mm) † Inclusion criteria Group Age (yr) † Weight (kg) † Defect size (mm) †
PDC vs. CSR
Chen 2013 [24] China PCS 2b, 18 100 SHSMA 8.8 ± 1.8 Isolated pmVSD, 5–12 mm in size PDC 13.3 ± 11.9 34.2 ± 16.8 7.6 ± 1.6
CSR 13.7 ± 13.5 34.6 ± 18.5
Hu 2014 [25] China PCS 2b, 20 100 SHSMA 8.4 ± 2.1 Isolated pmVSD ≤10 mm, no more than mild AR PDC 3.7 ± 2.3 16.7 ± 7.5 7.0 ± 2.0
CSR 1.4 ± 0.6 15.6 ± 5.0 6.8 ± 2.1
Hu 2015 [26] China RCS 2b, 17 100 Lifetech Med 7.6 ± 2.0 Isolated pmVSD ≤10 mm, no AR PDC 5.3 ± 3.6 18.1 ± 10.4 5.1 ± 2.2
CSR 4.4 ± 3.0 16.4 ± 6.1 4.2 ± 1.8
Luo 2015 [27] China RCS 2b, 17 100 SHSMA NA Isolated pmVSD, no severe PAH PDC 3.7 ± 5.5 14.9 ± 13.0 4.5 ± 1.6
CSR 3.7 ± 2.4 15.9 ± 5.3 4.6 ± 2.4
Voitov 2017 [28] Russia RCT 1b, 22 81.9 SHSMA 4–11 Isolated VSD ≤10 mm, no more than mild AR PDC 2.9 ± 0.4 13.9 ± 1.2 5.3 ± 0.3
CSR 3 ± 0.4 14.5 ± 1.2 6.2 ± 0.5
Xing 2015 [29] China RCS 2b, 19 86.9 AGA, SHSMA and Lifetech Med 6.5 ± 5.3 Restrictive isolated VSD, no severe PAH PDC 1 ± 0.6 9.8 ± 5.9 5.2 ± 3.0
CSR 0.9 ± 0.7 8.6 ± 7.8 6.8 ± 3.8
Xu 2012 [30] China PCS 2b, 19 100 SHSMA 4–18 Isolated pmVSD, 3–12 mm, no more than mild AR, age < 2 years PDC 0.7 ± 0.3 9.8 ± 1.8 5.1 ± 1.5
CSR 0.5 ± 0.2 7.7 ± 1.9 6.4 ± 1.7
Yao 2013 [31] China RCS 2b, 12 70.9 SHSMA NA Isolated VSD, no more than severe PAH PDC 4.7 ± 0.4 18.4 ± 1.0 NA
CSR 4.6 ± 0.5 17.7 ± 1.2 NA
Liu 2018 [32] China RCT 1b, 26 100 Lifetech Med 8.9 ± 1.4 isolated pmVSD with 3 to 10 mm, normal or mild PAH PDC 2 ± 0.7 13.2 ± 1.9 5.5 ± 1.4
CSR 2 ± 0.7 13.2 ± 1.9 5.5 ± 1.4
Chen 2018 [33] China RCS 2b, 17 100 Lifetech Med and Shandong Visee 6–14 pmVSD< 10, with no AR PDC 1.3 ± 1.2 8.3 ± 2.6 4.2 ± 1.1
CSR 1.2 ± 1.1 8.1 ± 2.5 5.1 ± 1.2
TDC vs. CSR
Yang 2014 [9] China RCT 1b, 24 100 SHSMA 7.4 Age 3–12 years, Weight > 10 kg, VSD > 3 mm TDC 5.5 ± 2.6 22.1 ± 13.8 5.2 ± 6.1
CSR 5.8 ± 2.4 20.5 ± 12.4 5.9 ± 5.3
Liu 2012 [10] China RCS 2b, 18 100 SHSMA 6.2 ± 2.3 Age > 3 years, Weight > 10 kg, VSD < 16 mm TDC 18.1 ± 15.1 NA 4.1 ± 1.4
CSR 7.5 ± 9.4 NA 6.3 ± 4.1
Pawelec-Wojtalik 2005 [11] Poland RCS 2b, 15 100 AGA 6.4 ± 2.2 Weight > 5 kg TDC 7.8 ± 6.4 28.1 ± 21.3 6.2 ± 1.1
CSR 2.6 ± 2.3 16.7 ± 8.4 4.8 ± 0.9
Cheng 2007 [34] China PCS 2b, 18 100 AGA NA Weight > 10 kg, VSD < 12 mm TDC 7.5 ± 2.4 NA 4.8 ± 2.3
CSR 4.4 ± 2.5 NA 8.2 ± 2.3
Zheng 2009 [35] China RCS 2b, 17 77.8 AGA NA Age > 2.5 years, Weight > 11 kg, VSD 3–12 mm TDC 2.5–15.5 11–63.5 3–12
CSR 2.8–52.5 11.5–68 3–36
Oses 2010 [36] Canada RCS 2b, 16 100 AGA 6.4 ± 2.2 VSD size < 6 mm, no age or Weight limit. VSD size > 6 mm, age > 6 years or Weight > 6 kg TDC 9.1 ± 5.1 NA 9.4 ± 3.9
CSR 1.8 ± 3.6 NA
Chen 2014 [37] China RCS 2b, 16 100 SHSMA 6.5 ± 2.1 Isolated pmVSD TDC 16 ± 11.7 41.3 ± 18.5 4.1 ± 1.2
CSR 3.8 ± 2.4 15.3 ± 5.3 4.3 ± 1.3
Zhu 2007 [38] China RCS 2b, 16 100 AGA, SHSMA 8.1 ± 2.5 NA TDC 11 ± 8 33 ± 17 4.4 ± 1.1
CSR 3–51 33 ± 16 5.2 ± 1
Chen 2015 [39] China RCS 2b, 17 100 NA NA Age > 2 years, Weight > 8 kg, VSD < 14 mm TDC 5 ± 1.2 16.5 ± 4.5 4.3 ± 1.7
CSR 4.9 ± 1.4 16.2 ± 5 5.4 ± 1.6
Xiao 2008 [40] China RCS 2b, 15 100 AGA NA Age > 3 years, Weight > 5 kg, VSD < 12 mm TDC 11.2 ± 6.8 NA 5.6 ± 1.3
CSR 12 ± 7.6 NA 6.1 ± 1.8
Chen 2010 [41] China RCS 2b, 16 94.9 Lifetech Med NA Age > 3 years, Weight > 10 kg, VSD < 10 mm TDC 10.6 ± 11.1 NA 5.5 ± 2.4
CSR 8.3 ± 7.9 NA 7.4 ± 6
TDC vs. PDC
Huang 2019 [42] China RCS 2b, 16 100 Lifetech Med and AGA 6.6 ± 2.8 isolated VSD with no AR TDC 6.2 ± 6.3 33.1 ± 21.5 5.9 ± 2.3
PDC 6.5 ± 5.2 31.5 ± 23.4 6.1 ± 2.1
PDC vs. TDC vs. CSR
Fang 2018 [43] China RCS 2b, 17 100 Shandong Visee 6–14 isolated VSD with no PAH PDC 1.6 ± 1.3 10.1 ± 2.3 5.3 ± 1.1
TDC 2.1 ± 0.8 10.6 ± 2.8 5.1 ± 1
CSR 1.4 ± 1.5 9.5 ± 3.1 5.9 ± 1.1
Chen 2019 [44] China RCS 2b, 17 100 Shandong Visee and AGA 4.8 ± 1.4 restrictive pmVSD with no severe PAH PDC 2.7 ± 1.5 18.8 ± 2.3 4.3 ± 0.7
TDC 2.9 ± 0.7 19.7 ± 3.9 4.2 ± 0.9
CSR 2.7 ± 1.1 19.3 ± 3.0 4.4 ± 0.8
  1. PDC perventricular device closure; TDC transcatheter device closure; CSR conventional surgical repair; PCS Prospective cohort study; RCS retrospective cohort study; VSD ventricular septal defects; pmVSD perimembranous VSD; yr year; mm millimeter; RCT Randomized controlled trial; NA not available; SHSMA Shanghai Shape Memory Alloy Co., Ltd.; AGA AGA Medical Corporation; Lifetech Med Lifetech Scientific Co., Ltd.; Shandong Visee Shandong Visee Medical Devices Co., Ltd.; AR aortic regurgitation; PAH pulmonary artery hypertension; PDC perventricular device closure; TDC transcatheter device closure; CSR conventional surgical repair; *Studies were categorized by Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence and assessed by Downs and Black scoring system [19, 20]; †Continuous variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range) or just range