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Table 1 Material properties of the spinal structures and instrumentations

From: Adjacent-level biomechanics after single-level anterior cervical interbody fusion with anchored zero-profile spacer versus cage-plate construct: a finite element study

DescriptionElement TypeYoung’s Modulus (MPa) EPoisson Ratio μCross Sectional Area (mm2)
Cortical boneShell elements12,0000.29
Cancellous bone3-D solid elements (4 node)4500.25
Facet cartilage3-D solid elements (4 node)10.40.4
Annulus fibers3-D solid elements (8 node)480.4
Nucleus pulposus3-D solid elements (8 node)1.00.49
Endplate3-D solid elements5000.4
Anterior longitudinal ligament3-D tension truss elements300.333
Posterior longitudinal ligament3-D tension truss elements200.333
Interspinous ligament3-D tension truss elements1.50.3913
Ligamentum flavum3-D tension truss elements50.350.1
Capsular ligaments3-D tension truss elements200.346.6
PEEK cage3-D solid elements (4 node)36000.3
Titanium plate3-D solid elements (4 node)110,0000.3
Screw3-D solid elements (4 node)110,0000.3