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Table 1 Differences between demographic and clinical characteristics of AL and non-AL groups

From: A novel nomogram to predict the risk of anastomotic leakage in patients after oesophagectomy

CharacteristicsALNon- ALPopulation
(n = 79, n%)(n = 251, n%)(n = 330, n%)
Sex
 male68 (86.08)195 (77.69)263 (79.70)
 female11 (13.92)56 (22.31)67 (20.30)
Age (years)
  < 6549 (62.03)144 (57.37)193 (58.48)
  ≥ 65 and < 7527 (34.18)93 (37.05)120 (36.36)
  ≥ 753 (3.80)14 (5.58)17 (5.15)
Pathology
 squamous78 (98.73)243 (96.81)321 (97.27)
 adenocarcinoma1 (1.27)8 (3.19)9 (2.73)
Pathologic tumour stage
 Stage 00 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
 Stage I9 (11.39)51 (20.32)60 (18.18)
 Stage II36 (45.57)109 (43.43)145 (43.94)
 Stage III32 (40.51)86 (34.26)118 (35.76)
 Stage IV2 (2.53)5 (1.99)7 (2.12)
Surgery method
 robot27 (34.18)84 (33.47)111 (33.64)
 thoracoscopy31 (39.24)122 (48.61)153 (46.36)
 open21 (26.58)45 (17.93)66 (20)
HBP7 (8.86)21 (8.37)28 (8.48)
DM12 (15.19)20 (7.97)32 (9.70)
CHD3 (3.80)3 (1.20)6 (1.82)
Smoking12 (15.19)14 (5.58)26 (7.88)
nCRT13 (16.46)28 (11.16)41 (12.42)
Location
 upper10 (12.66)32 (12.75)42 (12.73)
 middle47 (59.49)163 (64.94)210 (63.64)
 lower22 (27.85)56 (22.31)78 (23.64)
BMI (kg/m2)
  < 18.57 (8.86)16 (6.37)23 (6.97)
  ≥ 18.5 and <2439 (49.37)148 (58.96)187 (56.67)
  ≥ 24 and <2827 (34.18)77 (30.68)104 (31.52)
  ≥ 286 (7.59)10 (3.98)16 (4.85)
ASA
 I1 (1.27)5 (1.99)6 (1.82)
 II69 (87.34)222 (88.45)291 (88.18)
 III9 (11.39)24 (9.56)33 (10)
Blood (≥400 ml)3 (3.80)11 (4.38)14 (4.24)
Surgery time (min)
  < 1802 (2.53)12 (4.78)14 (4.24)
  ≥ 180 and 30050 (63.29)174 (69.32)224 (67.88)
  ≥ 30027 (34.18)65 (25.90)92 (27.88)
Thoracic surgery time
  < 609 (11.39)25 (9.96)34 (10.30)
  ≥ 60 and < 12049 (62.03)168 (66.93)217 (65.76)
  ≥ 12021 (26.58)58 (23.11)79 (23.94)
Transfer6 (7.59)10 (3.98)16 (4.85)
Anastomotic type
 stapled44 (55.70)186 (74.10)230 (69.70)
 hand-sewn35 (44.30)65 (25.90)100 (30.30)
Route reconstruction
 retrosternal44 (55.70)80 (31.87)124 (37.58)
 posterior mediastinum35 (44.30)171 (68.13)206 (62.42)
Cardiac ultrasound
 abnormal23 (29.11)68 (27.09)91 (27.58)
TP (g/L)
  < 658 (10.13)18 (7.17)26 (7.88)
  ≥ 6571 (89.87)233 (92.83)304 (92.12)
ALB (g/L)
  < 355 (6.33)7 (2.79)12 (3.64)
  ≥ 3574 (93.67)244 (97.21)318 (96.36)
PAB (g/L)
  < 0.211 (13.92)38 (15.14)49 (14.85)
  ≥ 0.268 (86.08)213 (84.86)281 (85.15)
ALT (U/L)
  < 93 (3.80)16 (6.37)19 (5.76)
  ≥ 9 and < 5074 (93.67)228 (90.84)302 (91.52)
  ≥ 502 (2.53)7 (2.79)9 (2.73)
AST (U/L)
  < 154 (5.06)22 (8.76)26 (7.88)
  ≥ 15 and < 4072 (91.1)210 (83.67)282 (85.45)
  ≥ 403 (3.80)19 (7.57)22 (6.67)
Urea (mmol/L)
  < 3.11 (1.27)5 (1.99)6 (1.82)
  ≥ 3.1 and < 9.577 (97.47)243 (96.81)320 (96.97)
  ≥ 9.51 (1.27)4 (1.59)5 (1.52)
CREA (mmol/L)
  < 571 (1.27)5 (1.99)6 (1.82)
  ≥ 57 and < 11176 (96.20)240 (95.62)316 (95.76)
  ≥ 1112 (2.53)6 (2.39)8 (2.42)
Glu (mmol/L)
  < 4.36 (7.59)13 (5.18)19 (5.76)
  ≥ 4.3 and < 5.957 (72.15)190 (75.70)247 (74.85)
  ≥ 5.916 (20.25)48 (19.12)64 (19.39)
PCT (ng/ml)
 0–0.0567 (84.81)219 (87.25)286 (86.67)
  > 0.0512 (15.19)32 (12.75)44 (13.33)
D-dimer (mg/L)
  < 0.5564 (81.01)195 (77.69)259 (78.48)
  ≥ 0.5515 (18.99)56 (22.31)71 (21.52)
CRP (mg/L)
  ≤ 1070 (88.61)238 (94.82)308 (93.33)
  > 109 (11.39)13 (5.18)22 (6.67)
ESR (mm/h)
  ≤ 4062 (78.48)198 (78.88)260 (78.79)
  > 4017 (21.52)53 (21.11)70 (21.21)
PLT (10^9/L)
  < 1258 (10.13)16 (6.37)24 (7.27)
  ≥ 125 and < 35069 (87.34)224 (89.24)293 (88.79)
  ≥ 3502 (2.53)11 (4.38)13 (3.94)
Hb (g/L)
  < 13017 (21.52)47 (18.73)64 (19.39)
  ≥ 130 and < 17561 (77.22)200 (79.68)261 (79.09)
  ≥ 1751 (1.27)4 (1.59)5 (1.52)
HCT (%)
  < 4018 (22.78)43 (17.13)61 (18.48)
  ≥ 40 and < 5056 (70.89)191 (76.10)247 (74.85)
  ≥ 505 (6.33)17 (6.77)22 (6.67)
Anaesthesia time (min)
  < 30031 (39.24)99 (39.44)130 (39.39)
  ≥ 300 and < 42040 (50.63)143 (56.97)183 (55.45)
  ≥ 4208 (10.13)9 (3.59)17 (5.15)
Anaesthesia method
 GA75 (94.94)238 (94.82)313 (94.85)
 GA + NB4 (5.06)13 (5.18)17 (5.15)
Intubation
 DLT34 (43.04)79 (31.47)113 (34.24)
 Tracheal + BBT17 (21.52)79 (31.47)96 (29.09)
 Tracheal tube28 (35.44)93 (37.05)121 (36.67)
SPO2(%)
  < 9068 (86.08)220 (87.65)288 (87.27)
  ≥ 9011 (13.92)31 (12.35)42 (12.73)
EtCO2_max (mmHg)
  < 6077 (97.47)239 (95.22)316 (95.76)
  ≥ 602 (2.53)12 (4.78)14 (4.24)
PaCO2(mmHg)
  < 6564 (81.01)194 (77.29)258 (78.18)
  ≥ 6515 (18.99)57 (22.71)72 (21.82)
Protective ventilation
 no47 (59.49)143 (56.97)190 (57.58)
 yes32 (40.51)108 (43.03)140 (42.42)
Temperature (°C)
  < 36.055 (69.62)173 (68.92)228 (69.09)
  ≥ 36.024 (30.38)78 (31.08)102 (30.91)
Hypotension
 no73 (92.41)232 (92.43)305 (92.42)
  < SBP 90 mmHg, ≥10 min5 (6.33)17 (6.77)22 (6.67)
  > SBP 90 mmHg, ≥30 min1 (1.27)2 (0.80)3 (0.91)
Hypertension
 no63 (79.75)199 (79.28)262 (79.39)
  > SBP160 mmHg, ≥10 min10 (12.66)42 (16.73)52 (15.76)
  > SBP160 mmHg, ≥30 min6 (1.82)10 (3.98)16 (4.85)
Cardiac arrhythmia
 no69 (87.34)240 (95.62)309 (93.64)
 yes10 (12.66)11 (4.38)21 (6.36)
CVP change (cmH2O)
 0–59 (11.39)30 (11.95)39 (11.82)
 5–1035 (44.30)104 (41.43)139 (42.12)
 10–1528 (35.44)90 (35.86)118 (35.76)
  ≥ 157 (8.86)27 (10.76)34 (10.30)
  1. Abbreviations: HBP hypertension, DM diabetes, CHD coronary heart disease, TP total protein, ALB albumin, PAB prealbumin, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate transaminase, PCT procalcitonin, CRP C-reactive protein, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PLT platelet count, Hb haemoglobin, HCT red blood cell specific volume, CVP central venous pressure, nCRT neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy