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Table 1 Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills assessment test: each trainee was evaluated in five different task with a score from 1 (low) to 5 (high)

From: Simulation as tool for evaluating and improving technical skills in laparoscopic gynecological surgery

TASK 1: creating pneumoperitoneum and positioning trocars under vision
 Time and motion 1 2 3 4 5
Many unnecessary moves   Efficient time/motion but some unnecessary moves   Economy of movement and maximum efficiency
 Knowledge of instruments 1 2 3 4 5
Frequently asked for the wrong instrument or used an inappropriate instrument   Knew the names of most instruments and used appropriate instrument for the task   Obviously familiar with the instruments required and their names
 Instruments handling 1 2 3 4 5
Repeatedly makes tentative or awkward moves with instruments   Competent use of instruments although occasionally appeared stiff or awkward   Fluid moves with instruments and no awkwardness
TASK 2: moving six pegs on a platform, from right to left and from left to right
 Time and motion 1 2 3 4 5
Many unnecessary moves   Efficient time/motion but some unnecessary moves   Economy of movement and maximum efficiency
 Instruments handling (dominant hand) 1 2 3 4 5
Repeatedly makes tentative or awkward moves with instruments   Competent use of instruments although occasionally appeared stiff or awkward   Fluid moves with instruments and no awkwardness
 Instruments handling (non-dominant hand) 1 2 3 4 5
Repeatedly makes tentative or awkward moves with instruments   Competent use of instruments although occasionally appeared stiff or awkward   Fluid moves with instruments and no awkwardness
 Synchronization between the hands 1 2 3 4 5
No coordination between the movements of the two hands   At times there is coordination between the movements of the two hands   Maximum synchronization between the hands
TASK 3: changing the shape of a rubber band on a platform with spikes
 Time and motion 1 2 3 4 5
Many unnecessary moves   Efficient time/motion but some unnecessary moves   Economy of movement and maximum efficiency
 Instruments handling (dominant hand) 1 2 3 4 5
Repeatedly makes tentative or awkward moves with instruments   Competent use of instruments although occasionally appeared stiff or awkward   Fluid moves with instruments and no awkwardness
 Instruments handling (non-dominant hand) 1 2 3 4 5
Repeatedly makes tentative or awkward moves with instruments   Competent use of instruments although occasionally appeared stiff or awkward   Fluid moves with instruments and no awkwardness
 Synchronization between the hands 1 2 3 4 5
No coordination between the movements of the two hands   At times there is coordination between the movements of the two hands   Maximum synchronization between the hands
TASK 4: cutting precisely a circle printed on a dual layer gauze
 Time and motion 1 2 3 4 5
Many unnecessary moves   Efficient time/motion but some unnecessary moves   Economy of movement and maximum efficiency
 Instruments handling 1 2 3 4 5
Repeatedly makes tentative or awkward moves with instruments   Competent use of instruments although occasionally appeared stiff or awkward   Fluid moves with instruments and no awkwardness
 Respect for tissue 1 2 3 4 5
Frequently used unnecessary force on tissue or caused damage by inappropriate use of instruments   Careful handling of tissue but occasionally caused inadvertent damage   Consistently handled tissues appropriately with minimal damage
 Synchronization between the hands 1 2 3 4 5
No coordination between the movements of the two hands   At times there is coordination between the movements of the two hands   Maximum synchronization between the hands
TASK 5: making single stitch/knot on a silicon suture-pad
 Time and motion 1 2 3 4 5
Many unnecessary moves   Efficient time/motion but some unnecessary moves   Economy of movement and maximum efficiency
 Instruments handling 1 2 3 4 5
Repeatedly makes tentative or awkward moves with instruments   Competent use of instruments although occasionally appeared stiff or awkward   Fluid moves with instruments and no awkwardness
 Respect for tissue 1 2 3 4 5
Frequently used unnecessary force on tissue or caused damage by inappropriate use of instruments   Careful handling of tissue but occasionally caused inadvertent damage   Consistently handled tissues appropriately with minimal damage
 Synchronization between the hands 1 2 3 4 5
No coordination between the movements of the two hands   At times there is coordination between the movements of the two hands   Maximum synchronization between the hands
 Flow of operation and forward planning 1 2 3 4 5
Frequently stopped operating or needed to discuss next move   Demonstrated ability for forward planning with steady progression of operative procedure   Obviously planned course of operation with effortless flow from one move to the next