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Table 1 ERAS society guideline elements for colonic resections

From: Improving enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS): ERAS APPtimize study protocol, a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of a patient-centred mobile application on patient participation in colorectal surgery

Element Responsible
Involvement patient
 1 Cessation of smoking and excessive intake of alcohol Surgeon, patient Active
 2 Preoperative nutritional screening and, as needed, assessment and nutritional support Surgeon Active/Passive
 3 Medical optimization of chronic disease Anaesthetist Passive
 1 Structured preoperative information and engagement of the patient and relatives or caretakers Nurse Passive
 2 Preoperative carbohydrate treatment Nurse Active/Passive
 3 Preoperative prophylaxis against thrombosis Surgeon Active/Passive
 4 Preoperative prophylaxis against infection Anaesthetist Passive
 5 Prophylaxis against nausea and vomiting Anaesthetist Passive
 1 Minimal invasive surgical techniques Surgery Passive
 2 Standardized anesthesia, avoiding long-acting opioids Anaesthetist Passive
 3 Maintaining fluid balance to avoid over- or under hydration, administer vasopressors to support blood pressure control Anaesthetist Passive
 4 Epidural anesthesia for open surgery Anaesthetist Passive
 5 Restrictive use of surgical site drains Surgeon Passive
 6 Removal of nasogastric tubes before reversal of anesthesia Anaesthetist Passive
 7 Control of body temperature using warm air flow blankets and warmed intravenous infusions Anaesthetist Passive
 1 Early mobilization (day of surgery) Patient Active
 2 Early intake of oral fluids and solids (offered the day of surgery) Patient Active
 3 Early removal of urinary catheters and intravenous fluids (morning after surgery) Nurse Active/Passive
 4 Use of chewing gums and laxatives and peripheral opioid-blocking agents (when using opioids) Patient Active
 5 Intake of protein and energy-rich nutritional supplements Patient Active
 6 Multimodal approach to opioid-sparing pain control Anaesthetist Passive
 7 Multimodal approach to control of nausea and vomiting Anaesthetist Passive
 8 Prepare for early discharge Nurse, patient Active/Passive
 9 Audit of outcomes and process in a multi-professional, multidisciplinary team on a regular basis Whole team Passive