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Table 1 Baseline and perioperative characteristics

From: Effect of restrictive fluid therapy with hydroxyethyl starch during esophagectomy on postoperative outcomes: a retrospective cohort study

N Missing 892
Demographic data
 Sex (Male/Female) 0 837 (93.8)/55 (6.2)
 Age (years) 0 63 [57–69]
 Body Mass Index (kg/cm2) 0 23.0 ± 2.9
 ASA class 0  
 I   77 (8.6)
 II   795 (89.1)
 III   20 (2.2)
Medical history
 Diabetes mellitus 0 134 (15.0)
 Hypertension 0 321 (36.0)
 Current smoker 0 226 (25.3)
 Alcohol 0 783 (87.8)
 Dyslipidemia 0 71 (8.0)
 Ischemic heart disease 0 16 (1.8)
 Congestive heart failure 0 29 (3.3)
 Cerebrovascular disease 0 32 (3.6)
 Peripheral vascular disease 0 23 (2.6)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 0 20 (2.2)
 Liver disease 0 95 (10.7)
 Atrial fibrillation 0 9 (1.0)
 Concurrent Chemo-Radiation Therapy 0 375 (42.0)
Laboratory data
 Hematocrit (%) 0 38.3 [34.5–41.4]
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 0 0.8 [0.7–0.9]
 Estimated GFR* (ml/min/1.73 m2) 0 93.8 [85.7–101.1]
 Total bilirubin (mg/dl) 0 0.6 [0.4–0.7]
 Albumin (g/dl) 0 3.7 [3.5–4.0]
 Forced vital capacity (% predicted) 31 93 [84.5–101.0]
 Forced expiratory volume in 1 min (% predicted) 31 92 [82.0–101.0]
Medication
 ACEI or ARB 0 150 (16.8)
 Beta-blocker 0 61 (6.8)
 Calcium channel blocker 0 169 (18.9)
 Insulin 0 125 (14.0)
 Oral hypoglycemic agent 0 89 (10.0)
 Statin 0 75 (8.4)
 Aspirin 0 51 (5.7)
 Plavix 0 15 (1.7)
 Diuretics 0 90 (10.1)
Intraoperative data
 Operation time (min) 0 339.6 ± 100.5
 Crystalloid per weight (ml/kg) 0 29.9 ± 17.4
 HES per weight (ml/kg) 0 12.4 ± 8.7
 HES-to-crystalloid ratio 0 0.6 ± 0.5
 Total fluid per weight per hour (ml/kg/h)† 0 6.1 ± 2.2
 Urine output (ml) 0 497.2 ± 417.3
 Packed red blood cell (unit) 0 0.3 ± 0.9
  None   792 (88.8)
   ≤ 2 units   74 (8.3)
   > 2 units   26 (2.9)
 Use of fresh frozen plasma 0 13 (1.5)
 Use of platelet concentrate 0 5 (0.6)
Postoperative data
 Weight gain (%) 0 0.9 [−0.5–2.3]
 Maximal SOFA-c ≥ 2 0 277 (31.1)
 Intensive care unit stay (h) 0 24.0 [21.0–45.0]
 Hospital stay (days) 0 13.0 [11.0–19.0]
  1. Data are expressed as number of patients (%), mean ± standard deviation, or median [interquartile range]
  2. *: Estimated glomerular filtration rate using Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation
  3. † Total fluid: sum of crystalloid and hydroxyethyl starch during the total anesthetic period
  4. ASA = American Society of Anesthesiology; GFR = glomerular filtration rate; ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; HES = hydroxyethyl starch; SOFA-c: cardiovascular sequential organ failure assessment in the first 24 h