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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Estimated intraoperative blood loss correlates with postoperative cardiopulmonary complications and length of stay in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lung cancer lobectomy: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristics Total (N = 429) Cardiopulmonary complications P-value
Yes (N = 80) No (N = 349)
Basic information
 Age (Years)
  Mean ± SD 62.5 ± 8.2 64.7 ± 7.7 62.0 ± 8.2 0.006
  Median (IQR) 63 (58–69) 63 (59–72) 62 (56–68)  
 Gender (Male gender) 266 (62.0%) 50 (62.5%) 216 (61.9%) 0.92
 Body mass index (kg/m2)
  Mean ± SD 23.4 ± 2.9 23.5 ± 3.1 23.4 ± 2.9 0.80
  Median (IQR) 23.3 (21.3–25.5) 23.4 (21.1–26.2) 23.3 (21.3–25.5)  
 Smoking history 221 (51.5%) 45 (56.3%) 176 (50.4%) 0.35
Preoperative underlying comorbidities
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 105 (24.5%) 29 (36.3%) 76 (21.8%) 0.007
 Asthma 8 (1.9%) 2 (2.5%) 6 (1.7%) 0.99
 Tuberculosis 35 (8.2%) 8 (10.0%) 27 (7.7%) 0.51
 Preoperative respiratory infection 43 (10.0%) 21 (26.3%) 22 (6.3%) < 0.001
 Hypertension 152 (35.4%) 35 (43.8%) 117 (33.5%) 0.085
 Diabetes mellitus 46 (10.7%) 14 (17.5%) 32 (9.2%) 0.030
 Coronary heart disease 46 (10.7%) 13 (16.3%) 33 (9.5%) 0.076
 Hyperlipidemia 11 (2.6%) 4 (5.0%) 7 (2.0%) 0.26
 Renal insufficiency 41 (9.6%) 9 (11.3%) 32 (9.2%) 0.57
 Severe liver diseases 49 (11.4%) 13 (16.3%) 36 (10.3%) 0.13
 Previous malignancy 27 (6.3%) 3 (3.8%) 24 (6.9%) 0.30
 Steroid use 22 (5.1%) 5 (6.3%) 17 (4.9%) 0.82
Combined treatment modalities
 Neoadjuvant therapy 33 (7.7%) 11 (13.8%) 22 (6.3%) 0.024
 Adjuvant chemotherapy 153 (35.7%) 26 (32.5%) 127 (36.4%) 0.51
Intraoperative parameters
 Tumor location
  Right upper lobe 148 (34.5%) 35 (43.8%) 113 (32.4%) 0.22
  Left upper lobe 72 (16.8%) 9 (11.3%) 63 (18.1%)
  Right lower lobe 93 (21.7%) 19 (23.8%) 74 (21.2%)
  Left lower lobe 64 (14.9%) 9 (11.3%) 55 (15.8%)
  Right middle lobe 52 (12.1%) 8 (10.0%) 44 (12.6%)
 Presence of pleural invasion
  None 209 (48.7%) 37 (46.3%) 172 (49.3%) 0.80
  Visceral 201 (46.9%) 40 (50.0%) 161 (46.1%)
  Parietal 19 (4.4%) 3 (3.8%) 16 (4.6%)
 Severity of pleural adhesion
  None 172 (40.1%) 30 (37.5%) 142 (40.7%) 0.084
  Light 136 (31.7%) 23 (28.7%) 113 (32.4%)
  Moderate 79 (18.4%) 13 (16.3%) 66 (18.9%)
  Severe/extremely severe 42 (9.8%) 14 (17.5%) 28 (8.0%)
 Pulmonary fissure completeness
  Complete 280 (65.3%) 41 (51.2%) 239 (68.5%) 0.004
  Incomplete 149 (34.7%) 39 (48.8%) 110 (31.5%)
 Estimated intraoperative blood loss (mL)
  Mean ± SD 89.2 ± 128.6 133.3 ± 191.3 79.1 ± 107.1 < 0.001
  Median (IQR) 50 (30–100) 90 (50–110) 50 (30–100)
 Operation time (Min)
  Mean ± SD 131.5 ± 56.8 167.9 ± 72.1 122.6 ± 48.6 < 0.001
  Median (IQR) 120 (90–160) 150 (110–210) 120 (90–150)
 Amount of intraoperative fluids (mL)
  Mean ± SD 1175.1 ± 555.2 1272.5 ± 505.8 1150.9 ± 565.1 0.10
  Median (IQR) 1000 (800–1500) 1100 (950–1550) 1000 (800–1400)  
  Conversion to thoracotomy 16 (3.7%) 8 (10.0%) 8 (2.3%) 0.003
Pathological parameters
 Histology
  Adenocarcinoma 315 (73.4%) 63 (78.8%) 252 (72.2%) 0.24
  Squamous cell carcinoma 94 (21.9%) 15 (18.8%) 79 (22.6%)
  Adeno-squamous carcinoma 12 (2.8%) 2 (2.5%) 10 (2.9%)
  Large cell carcinoma 8 (1.9%) 0 (0.0%) 8 (2.3%)
 Differentiation degree
  Low 83 (19.3%) 13 (16.3%) 70 (20.1%) 0.44
  Moderate/high 346 (80.7%) 67 (83.8%) 279 (79.9%)
  Tumor invasion (T-stage)
  T1 163 (38.0%) 31 (38.8%) 132 (37.8%) 0.030
  T2 242 (56.4%) 39 (48.8%) 203 (58.2%)
  T3 24 (5.6%) 10 (12.5%) 14 (4.0%)
 Lymph node metastasis (N-stage)
  N1–2 95 (22.1%) 17 (21.3%) 78 (22.3%) 0.83
  N0 334 (77.9%) 63 (78.8%) 271 (77.7%)
 TNM-stage
  I 305 (71.1%) 59 (73.8%) 246 (70.5%) 0.43
  II 68 (15.9%) 9 (11.3%) 59 (16.9%)
  IIIa 56 (13.1%) 12 (15.0%) 44 (12.6%)
  1. IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation