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Table 2 Summary of included publications

From: Postoperative changes of the microbiome: are surgical complications related to the gut flora? A systematic review

Author Kanazawa
et al.
et al.
et al.
et al.
et al.
Year 2005 2006 2006 2010 2010
Country Japan UK Japan China Japan
Treatment Synbiotics vs. no Treatment * ** Probiotic vs. Placebo Synbiotics vs. no Treatment
Number of patients included 44 (21 + 23) 88 (24 + 22 + 20 + 22) 81 (41 + 40) 100 (50 + 50) 50 (25 + 25)
Area of surgery Liver Colon Liver Colon Liver (Transplant)
Method of quantification Culture PCR Culture PCR Culture
C-reactive Protein Recovery faster No difference n. s. n. s.
White blood
cell count
Recovery faster n. s. n. s. n. s.
SIRS n. s. No difference n. s. No difference n. s.
Organic acids
in stool
n. s. n. s. n. s.
Stool pH No difference n. s. No difference n. s. n. s.
Rate of infections No difference
Number of pathogenetic bacteria No difference No difference
Number of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria n. s. No difference n. s.
  1. If not specified elsewhere, the arrows show the postoperative comparison of the synbiotic/probiotic-treated patients compared to control groups
  2. n. s. not specified, RCT Randomized controlled trial, SIRS Systemic inflammatory response syndrome
  3. *Group 1: Mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) only, Group 2: MBP + Neomycin, Group 3: MBP + Neomycin + Synbiotics, Group 4: Synbiotics + Neomycin, no MBP
  4. **Preoperative synbiotic treatment vs. no treatment, both groups were treated with synbiotics postoperatively