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Table 1 Risk factors of pancreatic fistula by univariate and multivariate analysis

From: Risk factors and outcomes of postoperative pancreatic fistula after pancreatico-duodenectomy: an audit of 532 consecutive cases

Variable PF group NPF group t/X2 P HR 95% CI P
Total 65 467      
Preoperative factors        
Age (years) 58.09 ± 11.50 55.48 ± 12.10 1.640 0.102    
Gender        
Male 46(70.8%) 298(63.8%)      
Female 19(29.2%) 169(36.2%) 1.209 0.272    
Hemoglobin serum levels (g/L) 117.85 ± 24.05 120.03 ± 20.86 0.696 0.487    
Albumin    0.075 0.784    
<35 g/L 9(13.8%) 59(12.6% )      
≥35 g/L 56(86.2) 408(87.4%)      
Hypertension    1.545 0.214    
Yes 11(16.9%) 54(11.6%)      
No 54(83.1%) 413(88.4%)      
Diabetes    0.015 0.903    
Yes 7(10.8%) 48(10.3%)      
No 58(89.2%) 419(89.7%)      
Preoperative biliary drainage    0.005 0.943    
With 17(26.2%) 124(26.6%)      
Without 48(73.8%) 343(73.4%)      
Intraopertive factors        
Operative time(min) 378.15 + 91.36 356.97 + 84.87 1.868 0.062    
Blood loss    0.075 0.784    
<500 ml 28(43.1%) 293(62.7%) 9.219 0.002 2.281 1.334-3.901 0.003
≥500 ml 37(56.9%) 174(37.3%)      
Pancreatic texture    2.064 0.151    
Soft 54(83.1%) 350(74.9%)      
Firm 11(16.9%) 117(25.1%)      
Diameter of pancreatic duct    14.643 <0.001 0.351 0.192-0.641 0.001
≤3 mm 49(75.4%) 234(50.1%)      
>3 mm 16(24.6%) 233(49.9%)      
Pancreatic stent    0.435 0.510    
Yes 53(81.5%) 364(77.9%)      
No 12(18.2%) 103(22.1%)      
Preoperative biliary drainage    0.005 0.943    
With 17(26.2%) 124(26.6%)      
Without 48(73.8%) 343(73.4%)      
Intraopertive factors        
Operative time(min) 378.15 + 91.36 356.97 + 84.87 1.868 0.062    
Blood loss    0.075 0.784    
<500 ml 28(43.1%) 293(62.7%) 9.219 0.002 2.281 1.334-3.901 0.003
≥500 ml 37(56.9%) 174(37.3%)      
Pancreatic texture    2.064 0.151    
Soft 54(83.1%) 350(74.9%)      
Firm 11(16.9%) 117(25.1%)      
Diameter of pancreatic duct    14.643 <0.001 0.351 0.192-0.641 0.001
≤3 mm 49(75.4%) 234(50.1%)      
>3 mm 16(24.6%) 233(49.9%)      
Pancreatic stent    0.435 0.510    
Yes 53(81.5%) 364(77.9%)      
No 12(18.2%) 103(22.1%)      
Venous resection    1.095 0.295    
Yes 3(4.6%) 39(8.4%)      
No 62(95.4%) 428(91.6%)      
PJ types    15.992 <0.001 1.355 1.007-1.823 0.045
Traditional 2-layers anastomosis 33(50.8%) 271(58.0%)      
Invaginated anastomosis 27(41.5%) 98(21.0%)      
Duct to mucous anastomosis 5(7.7%) 98(21.0%)      
  1. PF: pancreatic fistula; NPF: non pancreatic fistula; PJ: pancreaticojejunostomy; HR: hazard ratio; CI: confidence interval.