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Table 1 Possible causes of anxiety among patients attending surgical wards of JUSTH

From: Predictors of preoperative anxiety among surgical patients in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital, South Western Ethiopia

Possibilities causing anxiety Frequency Percentages Mean state anxiety score
Fear of death 91 82.7 56.3 ± 8.2
Fear of unknown 58 52.7 57.8 ± 8.9
Financial loss due to hospitalization 47 42.7 54.7 ± 8.6
Results of operation 46 41.8 55.7 ± 7.9
Needing blood transfusion 43 39.1 57.4 ± 9.2
Concern about family 43 39.1 56.9 ± 6.9
Postoperative pain 43 39.1 55.7 ± 9.2
Change of environment 41 37.3 55.2 ± 7.7
Long waiting time for operation 40 36.4 54.9 ± 9.0
Unexpected events 39 35.5 55.2 ± 9.2
Being patient and coming to hospital 35 31.8 51.8 ± 8.9
Dependency 34 30.9 55.1 ± 8.7
Fear of physical disability 33 30 53.9 ± 8.7
Fear of complications 31 28.2 53.3. ± 7.3
Cancellations 31 28.2 54.6 ± 9.0
Alteration in body image 26 23.6 56.7 ± 7.5
Possible unknown diagnostic results 24 21.8 53.2 ± 6.6
Lack of information 18 16.4 51.3 ± 8.1
Nil per mouth 16 14.5 55.6 ± 1.0
Harm from doctor or nurse mistake 16 14.5 57.7 ± 8.8
Terminology and language used 16 14.5 53.8 ± 1.2
Sickness and vomiting 15 13.6 53.7 ± 8.3
Fear of not knowing what occurs while unconscious during anesthesia 14 12.7 52.8 ± 9.2
Concern about fellow patient 13 11.8 55.6 ± 9.2
Absence from work 13 11.8 55.7 ± 9.8
Inaccurate information 12 10.9 55.5 ± 8.9
Short waiting time for operation 10 9.1 56.1 ± 7.4
Getting stuck of needle 9 8.2 54.3 ± 1.2
Lack of knowledge of ward 9 8.2 51.3 ± 8.1
Not awakening from anesthesia 8 7.3 55 ± 1.2
Information from previous negative hospital experiences 8 7.3 55 ± 1.2
Familiarity with facilities 7 6.4 58 ± 7.1
Lack of recognition of staff 5 4.5 55.6 ± 6.7
Awareness during surgery 4 3.6 63.3 ± 2.5
  1. Percentages do not add up to 100 as this is a result of multiple response questions.