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Table 1 Risk factor for lymph node metastasis in patients with submucosal invasive colorectal cancer

From: Tumor budding as a risk factor of lymph node metastasis in submucosal invasive T1 colorectal carcinoma: a retrospective study

   Lymph node involvement P-value
   No (n = 47) Yes (n = 8) Univariate Multivariate
Age Mean ± S.D. 60.8 ± 9.7 64.0 ± 8.9 0.381  
Sex male 29 (61.7 %) 5 (62.5 %)   
  female 18 (38.3 %) 3 (37.5 %) 0.966  
Tumor location Rt. Sided colon 6 (12.8 %) 2 (25.0 %)   
  Lt. Sided colon§ 22 (46.8 %) 4 (50.0 %)   
  Rectum 19 (40.4 %) 2 (25.0 %) 0.345  
Macroscopic shape of Ip 23 (48.9 %) 3 (37.5 %)   
tumor Isp 9 (19.1 %) 1 (12.5 %)   
  Is 12 (25.5 %) 3 (37.5 %) 0.485  
Tumor size ≤ 2.3 cm 20 (42.6 %) 5 (62.5 %)   
  > 2.3 cm 19 (40.4 %) 2 (25.0 %) 0.428  
Circumference ratio ≤ 1/4 26 (55.3 %) 6 (75.0 %)   
  1/4 < or ≤ 2/4 17 (36.2 %) 2 (25.0 %)   
  2/4 < or ≤ 3/4 1 (2.1 %) 0   
  > 3/4 0 0 0.375  
Depth of invasion (μm) < 1000 1 (2.1 %) 0   
  1000 ≤ or < 2000 6 (12.8 %) 2 (25.0 %)   
  2000 ≤ or < 3000 10 (21.3 %) 0   
  3000 ≤ 23 (48.9 %) 4 (50.0 %) 0.435 0.282
Depth of invasion (by Sm1 12 (25.5 %) 2 (25.0 %)   
Kudo’s classification) Sm2 17 (36.2 %) 1 (12.5 %)   
  Sm3 10 (21.3 %) 3 (37.5 %) 0.364 0.063
Differentiation well 21 (44.7 %) 1 (12.5 %)   
  moderately 21 (44.7 %) 6 (75.0 %)   
  poorly 0 0 0.112 0.856
Lymphovascular Absent 37 (78.7 %) 4 (50.0 %)   
invasion Present 5 (10.6 %) 2 (25.5 %) 0.206 0.232
Tumor budding Absent 23 (48.9 %) 1 (12.5 %)   
  Present 15 (31.9 %) 5 (75.0 %) 0.047 0.042
Microacinar structure Absent 29 (61.7 %) 3 (37.5 %)   
  Present 9 (19.1 %) 3 (37.5 %) 0.179 0.247
  1. † = including cecum, ascending, hepatic flexure, and proximal transverse colon.
  2. ‡ = including mid to distal transverse, descending, sigmoid, and rectosigmoid colon.
  3. § = ratio of the circumference of tumor to luminal circumference.