Glottic-SubGlottic adenoid cystic carcinoma. A case report and review of the literature
© Testa et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Published: 8 October 2013
Malignant tumours of minor salivary glands are uncommon, representing only 2-4% of all head and neck cancers. In the larynx, minor salivary gland tumours rarely occur and constitute less than 1% of laryngeal neoplasm. Most of the minor salivary gland tumours arise in the subglottis; however, they can also occur in the supraglottis, in the false vocal cords, aryepiglottic folds and caudal portion of the epiglottis. The most common type of malignant minor salivary gland tumour is adenoid cystic carcinoma.
We present a unusual case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of glottic-subglottic region in a 61-year-old woman. Follow-up endoscopy and laryngeal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at three years after treatment showed no recurrence of the tumour.
The diagnosis of glottic-subglottic adenoid cystic carcinoma should be considered in patients who are characterized by dyspnea, cough and stridor, but do not respond to pharmacologic approach.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma is usually a very slow growing cancer, invested by an apparently normal laryngeal mucosa, so that it can show no clear symptoms for a long time. For these reasons the increasing number of diagnostic mistakes or late diagnosis that may be fatal in some cases.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma is the predominant histologic type among malignancies of the minor salivary glands, with a frequency of 10-20%, representing only 2-4% of all head and neck malignancies [1, 2]. In the population the higher incidence is characteristic for women, especially between 50/60 years. There are no distinct risk factors that predispose patients to this malignancy. Smoking does not affect the incidence [3, 4]. Its predominant site is in the salivary glands of the oral cavity, in particular in the hard palate and whit lesser frequency in the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx, in this last localization is incredibly rare (0.07 %- 0.25% of all laryngeal tumours, 1% of all ACC), there are a few salivary glands in the mucosa of laryngeal-tracheal tract [2, 3, 5]. Only 174 cases of ACC in the larynx have been reported in literature reviews, with a percentage of incidence, in the anatomic laryngeal subsites as follows : supra-glottis region (25%), glottis region ( 5%), transglottic area ( 6%), sub-glottis region ( 64%). The local diffusion is frequently infiltrating, with a slow evolution and a large local invasiveness (thyroid/esophagus); it's possible, anyway, the exophytic or polipoid growth of cancer in particular in the laryngeal-tracheal site . The dyspnea is often the predominant symptom and the local-regional metastases, at least for malignancies originated from subglottis region, are almost rare. The average survival is about eight years. The evolution prognosis of this disease is caused by lungs, bones and brain metastases or by local recurrence, so thanks to slow tumour growth, it sometimes could recur after ten or more years . We report a case of ACC, treated as nodular benign thyroid neoplasm, in a patient whit previous diagnosis of asthma.
Aging is accompanied by a increased incidence of mortality from many diseases like cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and other pathologies all related to oxidative stress and elevated ROS (Reactive oxygen species) [10, 11]. Drugs, chemicals, pollutants, high-caloric diets, exercise and sport activity are stress agents involved in overproduction of oxidant molecules. The most common malignancy of the larynx is squamous cell carcinoma. Median age of occurrence is in the sixth and seventh decades and less than 1% of laryngeal cancers arise in patients younger than 30 years of age. Less commonly, other epithelial, neuroendocrine, and soft tissue tumours can also occur in this location [13, 14]. Laryngeal salivary gland carcinomas are rare diseases, cause the low density of minor glands in the larynx (between 23 and 47 glands/cm2) accounting for less than 1% of all laryngeal malignancies, the most common type is adenoid cystic carcinoma [15, 16]. No distinct risk factor that predisposes patients towards this malignancy has been identified . Smoking does not affect the incidence differently from what happens for squamous cell carcinoma . According to Dexemble et al. (2003) laryngeal ACC arises in sub-glottis area, which could be an isolated site of neoplasm (60%) or could be invaded by glottis or supra-glottis neoplasm (20%) [6, 15]. Neck metastasis are rare (10 to 15% of the cases), but distant recurrence is common mainly to the lung and may occur many years after the primary neoplasm surgical treatment [3, 16]. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is usually a very slow growing cancer, invested by an apparently normal laryngeal mucosa, so that it can show no clear symptoms for a long time. For these reasons the increasing number of diagnostic mistakes or late diagnosis that may be fatal in some cases . The symptomatic square such as dyspnea, dysphagia and dysphonia becomes clear in the respective supraglottic, glottic, hypoglottic sites and it is the most insidious form above all, in case of a late diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of laryngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma are related to location and size. Tumours of the supra-glottis present with dysphagia. Hoarseness or even dyspnea is indicative of glottic involvement. Stridor and airway obstruction are more frequently associated with sub-glottic tumours. However, usually, adenoid cystic carcinoma occurs as a large asymptomatic, non-ulcerated sub-mucosal mass. As a result, diagnosis is often delayed and, in the larynx, sub-glottic tumours have the opportunity to invade deeply before they are diagnosed . The slowly insurgent dyspnea together with laryngeal screeching may lead to an early diagnose of asthma and if the symptoms don't disappear despite the adeguate therapy, radiological finding such as CT is always most important for the diagnosis . The direct invasion of the thyroid by the ACC caused by the laryngotracheal complex simulating a nodular benign pathology of the thyroid, just like the case we have discussed so far, is a rare occurrence that can delay the diagnosis . The histopathological pattern of adenoid cystic carcinoma is classified into three distinct subtypes: cribriform, which is the most common form and characterize case described here, tubular, which has the best prognosis; and solid, which carries the worst prognosis . The five-year survival rates for patients with laryngeal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma have been reported in literature to range from only 12 to 17% after surgery [3, 4]. Surgical excision is the main treatment due to the relative radioresistance of these tumours [2, 18]. Total laryngectomy assures radical tumour excision and is often required because of submucosal spread, lymphatic diffusion and perineural invasion . Postoperative radiation therapy is recommended, since radiotherapy has shown result in prolonging survival and preventing local recurrences . The use of Standard chemotherapies have systemic toxicities and limited efficacy in the case of larynx carcinoma as well as of other more common solid tumours [20, 22]. Some authors have reported positive responses to chemotherapy, recommending it as palliative therapy in advanced cases . Conversely, there is no hint of a remodeling of the Ca2+ toolkit, that has been observed in other malignancies, including renal cellular carcinoma [24, 25] and prostate cancer , and has been put forward as alternative target for selective molecular therapies .
Laryngeal salivary gland carcinomas are rare and account for < 1% of laryngeal malignancies. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion is essential for early diagnosis. This tumour must be considered when aggressive laryngeal tumours are found, especially if the patient is not at risk for squamous cell carcinomas. They usually originate in the supra-glottic or sub-glottic area with a predominance of old age. Most patients are diagnosed late, at an advanced stage. CT can be used to assess tumour extent and growth patterns. Wide-margin surgery alone or in combination with post-operative radiotherapy for advanced lesions that present peri-neural spread or close or positive margins is the best tumour management. For these patients, regular and long-term follow-up is mandatory, in order to detect relapses and metastases.
DT: Assistant Professor of Otolaryngology at Second University of Naples
GG: Assistant Professor of Anatomy at University of Molise
GC: Assistant Professor of Surgery at Second University of Naples
MN: Resident in Otolaryngology Training Program at Second University of Naples
GD: Assistant of Otolaryngology at Second University of Naples
MS: Research Fellow at University of Naples "Federico II"
GI: PhD Student at University of Naples "Federico II"
MV: Assistant Professor of Endocrinology at University of Salerno
FR: Assistant Professor of Dentistry at University of Naples "Federico II"
GM: Full Professor of Otolaryngology at Second University of Naples
Publication charges for this article were covered by research funds of the project Bando Faro 2012 - Finanziamenti per l'Avvio di Ricerche Originali, cofounded by the Compagnia di San Paolo and by the Polo per le Scienze e le Tecnologie per la Vita of the University Federico II in Naples.
This article has been published as part of BMC Surgery Volume 13 Supplement 2, 2013: Proceedings from the 26th National Congress of the Italian Society of Geriatric Surgery. The full contents of the supplement are available online at http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcsurg/supplements/13/S2
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