Epidemiological characteristics of 778 patients who underwent surgical drainage of chronic subdural hematomas in Brasília, Brazil
© Sousa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 4 August 2012
Accepted: 13 February 2013
Published: 1 March 2013
Chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs) are common in neurosurgical practice. There are no publications that report large series of the epidemiological characteristics of this pathology in Brazil. The purpose is to describe a large series of surgical cases and analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics.
We retrospectively analyzed patients with CSDH admitted into Neurosurgical Services at the Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal, Brasília, Brazil from 2006 to 2011. Age, sex, clinical feature, etiology, surgical procedure, side, clinical outcome, and recurrence were reviewed. Statistical tests were used to analyze data, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The series included 778 patients. There were 643 (82.6%) male patients with a mean age of 64.3 ± 15.9 (range, 14–93) years. The principal symptom was headache (58.9%). The most frequent origin was a fall (282 cases, 36.2%), but the origin remained unclear in 281 (36.1%) patients. Mild head injury occurred in 540 (69.4%) cases. Burr holes with drainage were used as the surgical procedure in 96.5% patients, and 687 (88.3%) patients had a positive outcome. Mortality was 0%. Recurrence was observed in 42 cases.
The occurrence of CSDHs is more common in elderly men. Treatment with burr holes and drainage is a simple and safe method for treatment. In our experience, CSDH presents decreased morbidity and mortality.
KeywordsChronic subdural hematoma Outcome Surgery Recurrence Burr hole Craniotomy Epidemiology Brazil
A chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a slowly growing encapsulated collection of blood and its breakdown products located between the dura mater and the arachnoid. A CSDH is the result of tearing in the bridging veins, usually caused by minor trauma, and its risk factors include atrophy and coagulopathy in the brain [1, 2]. Radiologically, a CSDH has been defined, based on the density discovered in the computed tomography (CT) scan, as a hypodense subdural hematoma, compared with parenchyma, and it presents 21 days after trauma .
A CSDH is one of the most common conditions encountered in neurosurgical practice. The common occurrence of CSDH in older patients causes a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges because of frequently described nonspecific symptoms and accompanying diseases . The incidence of CSDH increases greatly with age, and its occurrence ranges from approximately 3.4 per 100,000 in patients younger than 65 years of age to 8–58 per 100,000 in those older than 65 years [2, 3].
The, presentation, management, and prognosis of CSDHs are well-documented, but there are few publications that report the epidemiological characteristics of this pathology in Brazilian neurosurgery [4–6]. A series of surgical CSDH cases from our institution will be presented, and the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, causes, surgical results, and recurrence rate will be described.
The neurosurgical staff on duty selected the type of surgical procedure (burr hole with closed-system drainage or craniotomy). The surgery was performed under general anesthesia by creating one burr hole of approximately 10 mm in diameter in the side of the location of the hematoma. After exposing the dura mater and the outer membrane of the hematoma, the collection of blood was evacuated under its own tension, and irrigation was performed using physiological saline solution until clear fluid came out. When the subdural space allowed, a closed subdural drainage system, without any negative pressure, was placed and subcutaneously tunneled for at least 5 cm. Subdural drainage was continued up to 48 h after surgery, during which time, the patient was supine in bed. During the craniotomy, a piece of bone was removed and the largest portion of the brain was exposed. After exposing the dura mater and the outer membrane of the hematoma, only the outer membrane was removed. After evacuation of the hematoma, the piece of bone was replaced and fixed to the skull. Surgical hemostasis was performed with monopolar/bipolar cautery and oxidized regenerated cellulose (Surgicel R, Johnson & Johnson, Arlington, TX, USA).
After the surgery, the patients routinely received seizure prophylaxis with 15 mg/Kg of phenytoin by slow IV, followed by 100 mg IV every 8/8 h, and prophylactic antibiotic with cefazolin 1 g IV every 8/8 h for 48 h. The patients stayed in the post-anesthesia recovery room and in the neurosurgical ward. A cranial CT was only performed in patients with clinical complications. Subcutaneous injection of 40 mg of enoxaparin was used after 24 h of surgical procedures for prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis during the patient’s stay in hospital.
We reviewed age, sex, the presenting signs and symptoms, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), origin, type of surgical procedure, side of the skull in which the hematoma occurred, days of hospitalization, Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at discharge, and the recurrence of CSDH for each patient. CSDH recurrence was determined when the clinical status did not improve after the operation or new neurological symptoms occurred with re-accumulation of a subdural blood collection, as seen on a CT scan. There was no follow-up of patients after discharge from hospital.
All data were analyzed using the commercially available statistical software package SPSS 20.0 (SPSS®, Chicago, IL, USA). Continuous distributed variables were separately compared using the student’s t-test, and they were reported as mean ± standard deviations (SD). Proportions were compared with chi-square and Fisher’s exact test, and they were presented as percentages. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The study protocol was approved by the institute’s committee on human research (Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Saúde do Distrito Federal, protocol 138/2012).
Characteristics of 778 patients with CSDH
Age in years (mean ± SD) and range
64.3 ± 15.9 (14–93)
<65 years (%)
≥65 years (%)
Median (IQR) GCS on admission
Convexity hematoma (%)
Coagulopathy or anticoagulant/ antiaggregant therapy
The origin of the CSDH was determined in 497 patients (63.9%) and remained unclear in 281 patients (36.1%). Of the determined cases, 470 had suffered a previous head injury, and 27 patients had coagulopathy or used an anticoagulant/antiaggregant therapy without a history of trauma associated with the treatment. The causes of the head injuries were a fall (282 cases), traffic accident (74 cases), aggression (35 cases), or other accidents (79 cases). Falls represented 60.7% (82 of 135 cases) of the causes of CSDH in female patients, but they accounted for only 31.1% (200 of 643 cases) in the male patients (P < 0.001). Falls also represented the most frequent origin of trauma in patients aged 65 years or older (154 cases) and in patients younger than 65 years (96 cases; P > 0.05). Traffic accidents and aggression were significantly more frequent in patients younger than 65 years of age (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively).
Symptoms of 778 patients with CSDH *
Postoperative results of 778 patients with CSDH
Burr holes with drain
Within 3 months
GOS, median (IQR) on admission*
Days hospitalized (mean ± SD)
6.53 ± 7.7
Of the patients, 687 (88.3%) had a positive outcome (GOS 5). Patients with severe brain injuries upon admission had poor outcomes (GOS 3–2) compared with patients with mild and moderate brain injuries (50.0%, 0.9%, and 7.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). Postoperative mortality was 0%.
In 1657, J. J. Wepfer was the first to describe a CSDH, and in 1857, Virchow detailed the pathophysiology of this hematoma, naming it pachymeningitis haemorrhagica interna [1, 7]. Many authors have since demonstrated that lesions are easily treated with minimal morbidity or mortality.
CSDH occur in the dural border cell layer, located between the dura mater and the arachnoid. The dissection of these cell layers creates a subdural cavity . Patients with extensive brain atrophy (elderly and alcoholics) or conditions resulting in intracranial hypotension (ventriculoperitoneal shunt) are vulnerable to developing CSDH [1, 2]. Traversing veins are being increasingly stretched by the shrinking brain until only a minor additional force is sufficient to cause the rupture of the bridging veins and create the hematoma. This is followed by fibrin deposition, organization, enzymatic fibrinolysis, and liquefaction of the clot [1, 2, 9–11]. An inflammatory reaction occurs, and neomembranes (inner or visceral and outer or parietal membranes) are formatted with the growth of neocapillaries and enzymatic hyperfibrinolysis. CSDH tend to gradually enlarge because repeated micro-hemorrhage may lead to clinical signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure or compression brain structures [2, 9–12].
The elderly and male preponderance of CSDH has already been described [1–3, 13–15]. In the elderly, the brain weighs approximately 200 g less, which leads to an approximate 11% increase in extracerebral volume, allowing for greater movement of the brain . Other factors explain why older people have a predisposition for trivial trauma. One rationale for male dominance could be that men generally have a greater exposure to injuries . Studies show that male predominance diminishes with age [3, 9, 15]. This tendency to match the ratio between the sexes can be seen in our results also (Figure 3), and it can explain the greater life expectancy of women .
The history of trauma was acquired in 60.4% of patients. Among these, 282 (60%) had a history of a fall (a trivial trauma). This is comparable to many studies that show an average of 56 to 77% of CSDH patients with a history of a fall [13–15, 17]. In our results, traffic accidents and aggression were most frequent in patients with younger than 65 years of age, as well as in males; also, younger people generally have a greater exposure to injuries .
Chronic anticoagulation/antiaggregant therapy uses are also at increased risks for CSDH. Although the process is incompletely established, it has been suggested that asymptomatic “microbleeds” permit the development of a symptomatic hemorrhage . These drugs, which are used in a large proportion of the elderly population, may add to the risk of CSDH by as much as 42.5 times . Some studies report that patients initially taking anticoagulant medications have more risk of recurrence and longer stays in the hospital [2, 3, 7, 13, 15, 20]. Our results show only 3.5% of all CSDH patients admitted were chronically anticoagulated/antiaggregated or had coagulopathy history. In one study, 41% of all CSDH patients admitted to a neurosurgical department in Switzerland were chronically anticoagulated . Our data may be explained by incomplete medical records and by deficiencies in Brazilian public health in diagnosing pathologies requiring the chronic use of these drugs, as well as deficient distribution of these medicaments to the population.
Headache, hemiparesis, and behavioral disturbance were frequent symptoms in our study and in related articles [3, 5, 13]. In our series, behavioral disturbances were more frequent in patients 65 years of age or older compared with younger patients who frequently presented with increased intracranial pressure (headache). Gelabert-González et al.  and Asghar et al.  reported that the most common clinical characteristics in elderly patients were mental disorders.
Accepted management of CSDH (burr hole with or without closed-system drainage, twist-drill craniostomy, or craniotomy) is accompanied by recurrence rates of 4 to 26% [2, 3, 7, 13, 15]. In our series, 96.5% of the surgical procedures undertaken in patients with CSDH were burr holes with closed-system drainage, and only 5.4% of patients experienced a recurrence. Craniotomy is the most invasive, encompassing the longest operating time and the greatest blood loss and remains with option in calcified or CSDH with numerous thick membranes . Twist-drill craniostomy can be performed at the bedside in patients with multiple medical co-morbidities; however, there is a theoretical increased risk of contamination .
The most frequently used technique is burr-hole craniostomy with or without drainage . The debate regarding the role of a drainage system in the surgical management of this pathology is ongoing. According to some reports, the installation of a drainage system helps brain expansion, decreasing the chance of recurrence . However, the reported complications of a drainage system are significant, including hemorrhage, seizure induction, and infection [2, 3, 10, 11, 20]. Thus far, doubt persists about whether the installation of a drainage system is safer and more useful than irrigation without leaving a drainage system in place. Perhaps another explanation for the low recurrence rate of CSDH in our study is the lack of follow-up data of patients.
Positive functional results (score of 5 in GOS) have been shown in 72-93% of patients in several reports with the various types of surgical procedures, including twist-drill craniostomy, burr-hole craniostomy, and craniotomy [21, 22]. Our patients also conform to this trend (88.3%).
The mortality rate varies in a recent series from 0 to 13% [3, 22], and in our series, the mortality rate was 0%. Age, systemic complication, coagulopathy, and poor preoperative neurological state are contributory causes of postoperative death, functional outcome, and length of stay in the hospital [2, 3, 10, 11, 20]. This was evident in our study, as well.
Among the limitations of our study are the lack of personal history data, the tomographic imaging of the hematoma, and complications in patients who underwent operations without complete medical records. These limitations can be discussed in future research.
Chronic subdural hematomas are common neurosurgical problems associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In our series, headache and behavioral disturbance were the most frequent signs of CSDHs in elderly patients, and headache was the most frequent symptom in younger patients. A burr hole with closed-system drainage is a simple, safe, and efficient method for the treatment of CSDH, and it has a low occurrence of complications. In our experience, the worst prognostic factor for the outcome of CSDH in patients was the neurological condition at the time of surgery.
Chronic subdural hematoma
Computerized tomography scan
Glasgow coma scale
Glasgow outcome scale
- Markwalder TM: Chronic subdural hematomas: a review. J Neurosurg. 1981, 54: 637-645. 10.3171/jns.1981.54.5.0637.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ducruet AF, Grobelny BT, Zacharia BE, Hickman ZL, DeRosa PL, Anderson K, Sussman E, Carpenter A, Connolly ES: The surgical management of chronic subdural hematoma. Neurosurg Rev. 2012, 35 (2): 155-169. 10.1007/s10143-011-0349-y.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gelabert-González M, Iglesias-Pais M, García-Allut A, Martínez-Rumbo R: Chronic subdural haematoma: surgical treatment and outcome in 1000 cases. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2005, 107 (3): 223-229. 10.1016/j.clineuro.2004.09.015.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Antunes Filho GD, Alliez J, Eva L, Reynier Y, Alliez B: Análise da cirurgia do hematoma subdural crônico em cem pacientes idosos [Analysis of the surgical treatment of chronic subdural hematoma in 100 elderly patients]. Arq Brasileiro Neurocirurgia. 2006, 25 (4): 156-160.Google Scholar
- Yasuda CL, Morita ME, Nishimori FY, Yasuda AM, Alves HL: Hematoma subdural crônico: estudo de 161 pacientes operados e a relação com alterações no coagulograma [Chronic subdural hematoma: study of 161 patients and the relationship with coagulation abnormalities]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2003, 61 (4): 1011-1014. 10.1590/S0004-282X2003000600023.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Salomão JF, Leibinger RD, Lynch JC: Hematoma subdural crônico: tratamento cirúrgico e resultados em 96 pacientes [Chronic subdural hematoma: surgical treatment and results in 96 patients]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 1990, 48 (1): 91-96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Asghar M, Adhiyaman V, Greenway MW, Bhowmick BK, Bates A: Chronic subdural haematoma in the elderly: a North Wales experience. J R Soc Med. 2002, 95 (6): 290-292. 10.1258/jrsm.95.6.290.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Haines DE, Harkey HL, al-Mefty O: The “subdural” space: a new look at an outdated concept. Neurosurgery. 1993, 32: 111-120. 10.1227/00006123-199301000-00017.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Spallone A, Giuffrè R, Gagliardi FM, Vagnozzi R: Chronic subdural hematoma in extremely aged patients. Eur Neurol. 1989, 29: 18-22. 10.1159/000116370.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gurelik M, Aslan A, Gurelik B, Ozum U, Karadag O, Kars HZ: A safe and effective method for treatment of chronic subdural haematoma. Can J Neurol Sci. 2007, 34: 84-87.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Markwalder TM, Steinsiepe KF, Rohner M, Reichenbach W, Markwalder H: The course of chronic subdural hematoma after burr-hole craniostomy and closed-system drainage. J Neurosurg. 1981, 55 (3): 390-396. 10.3171/jns.1981.55.3.0390.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nomura S, Kashiwagi S, Fujisawa H, Ito H, Nakamura K: Characterization of local hyperfibrinolysis in chronic subdural hematomas by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot. J Neurosurg. 1994, 81: 910-913. 10.3171/jns.1994.81.6.0910.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mori K, Maeda M: Surgical treatment of chronic subdural hematoma in 500 consecutive cases: clinical characteristics, surgical outcome, complications, and recurrence rate. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2001, 41: 371-381. 10.2176/nmc.41.371.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ramachandran R, Hegde T: Chronic subdural hematomas: causes of morbidity and mortality. Surg Neurol. 2007, 67 (4): 367-373. 10.1016/j.surneu.2006.07.022.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baechli H, Nordmann A, Bucher HC, Gratzl O: Demographics and prevalent risk factors of chronic subdural haematoma: results of a large single-center cohort study. Neurosurg Rev. 2004, 27 (4): 263-266.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Misra M, Salazar JL, Bloom DM: Subdural-peritoneal shunt: treatment for bilateral chronic subdural hematoma. Surg Neurol. 1996, 46: 378-383. 10.1016/S0090-3019(96)00188-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Talbot LA, Musiol RJ, Witham EK, Metter EJ: Falls in young, middle-aged and older community dwelling adults: perceived cause, environmental factors and injury. BMC Public Health. 2005, 5: 86-10.1186/1471-2458-5-86.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Hanley JP: Warfarin reversal. J Clin Pathol. 2004, 57 (11): 1132-1139. 10.1136/jcp.2003.008904.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Rust T, Kiemer N, Erasmus A: Chronic subdural haematomas and anticoagulation or anti-thrombotic therapy. J Clin Neurosci. 2006, 13 (8): 823-827. 10.1016/j.jocn.2004.12.013.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakajima H, Yasui T, Nishikawa M, Kishi H, Kan M: The role of postoperative patient posture in the recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma: a prospective randomized trial. Surg Neurol. 2002, 58: 385-387. 10.1016/S0090-3019(02)00921-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Williams GR, Baskaya MK, Menendez J, Polin R, Willis B, Nanda A: Burr-hole versus twist-drill drainage for the evacuation of chronic subdural haematoma: a comparison of clinical results. J Clin Neurosci. 2001, 8 (6): 551-554. 10.1054/jocn.2000.0926.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Santarius T, Lawton R, Kirkpatrick PJ, Hutchinson PJ: The management of primary chronic subdural haematoma: a questionnaire survey of practice in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. Br J Neurosurg. 2008, 22 (4): 529-534. 10.1080/02688690802195381.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2482/13/5/prepub